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Table 1

The characteristic features of programmed cell death [20].

Programmed cell death (PCD) Apoptosis (type I PCD) Autophagic cell death (type II PCD) Necroptosis (type III PCD)
Feature Chromatin condensation Autophagic vesicles Random DNA degradation
DNA laddering Blebbing Swollen organelles
Blebbing (nuclear, cytoplasmic) Degradation of golgi Cytoplasmic membrane rupture
Apoptotic bodies Potent inflammatory response
Key regulators Caspases Beclin-1 RIPK1
Bcl-2 family members LC III TRAF2
Cytochrome c Atg family proteins PARP
Death-receptor proteins ULK 1 Calpains
Calpains mTOR
Relative pathways Death-receptor Pathway (extrinsic pathway) AMPK pathway Glycosylphospha-tidylinositol anchor biosynthesis
Mitochondrial pathway (Intrinsic pathway) Akt/mTOR pathway Type 1 interferon family
ER stress pathway MAPK/ERK pathway
Caspase-dependent pathway p53/stress pathway Toll-like receptor signaling network
Caspase-independent pathway ER stress pathway