Open Access
Review

Table 2

Assays for monitoring autophagy.

Description Methods Reference
Monitor autophagosome number, volume, and content/cargo Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [59, 146, 147]
Western blotting [59, 146, 147]
Atg8/LC3 detection and quantification GFP-Atg8/LC3 fluorescence microscopy [59, 146, 147]
Immunohistochemistry [59, 146, 147]
Western blotting [55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 146, 147]
Additional autophagy-related protein markers Real-time PCR [55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 146, 147]
Immunohistochemistry [55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 146, 147]
Transcriptional regulation Real-time PCR [55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 146, 147]
Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) [59, 146, 147]
Acridine orange (AO) [59, 146, 147]
Acidotropic dyes for identify acidified vesicular compartments Neutral Red [59, 146, 147]
LysoSensor Blue [59, 146, 147]
Lyso-Tracker Red [59, 146, 147]