Open Access
Review

Table 3

Pharmacological regulation of autophagy.

Method Comments Reference
3-Methyladenine (3-MA) The PtdIns3 K inhibitor and blocks an early stage of autophagy [60, 62, 90, 91]
Bafilomycin A1 The V-ATPase inhibitor and blocks fusion of autophagosomes with the vacuole [58, 62, 90, 91, 148]
Chloroquine Lysosomotropic compounds that elevate and neutralize the lysosomal and vacuolar pH [58, 90, 91]
Leupeptin Block lysosomal protein degradation [90, 91]
Pepstatin A Block lysosomal degradation [90, 91]
Tunicamycin The glycosylation inhibitor that induces autophagy [90, 91]
Resveratrol Induction of autophagy via activation of AMPK [55, 90, 91]