Pharmacological treatment for T2D.
|Increase insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells.||Sulfonylureas (First generation)||Tolbutamide Chlorpropamide Acetohexamide Tolazamide||[149–158]|
|Sulfonylureas (Second generation)||Glibenclamide (Euglucon ®) Glipizide (Glidiab®) Gliclazide (Diamicron ®) Glimepiride (Amaryl®)||[149–158]|
|Meglitinide||Repaglinide (Novonorm®) Nateglinide (Starlix®)||[159–162]|
|Enhances insulin sensitivity in liver and peripheral tissues by activation of AMP activated protein kinase. Glycogen hydrolysis and Gluco- neogenesis inhibition.||Biguanide||Metformin||[163–167]|
|Absorption of glucose is delayed.||α-Glucosidase inhibitor||Acarbose||[168–170]|
|Enhances insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and liver by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma receptors.||Thiazolidinedione (TZD)||Rosiglitazone (Avandia®) Pioglitazone (Actos)||[171–174]|
|Amplifies incretin pathway activation by inhibition of enzymatic breakdown of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP.||DPP-4 inhibitor||Sitagliptin (Januvia) Saxagliptin (Onglyza) Linagliptin (Trajenta)||[150, 175–178]|
|Activates incretin pathway by utilizing DPP-4 resistant analogue to GLP-1.||GLP-1 receptor agonist||Exenatide (Byetta) Liraglutide (Victoza)||[179–185]|
|Activates insulin receptors to regulate metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein.||Insulin Bolus (prandial) insulins Basal insulins Premixed insulins||Aspart (NovoRapid) Glulisine (Apidra) Lispro (Humalog) Detemir (Levemir) Glargine (Lantus) NPH (Humulin-N, Novolin ge NPH) Biphasic insulin aspart (NovoMix 30) Insulin lispro/lispro protamine suspension (Humalog Mix25, Mix50) Premixed Regular-NPH (Humulin 30/70; Novolin ge 30/70, 40/60, 50/50)||[111, 186-191]|
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