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Effects of YC-1 on DNA fragmentation, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in CAR cells. (A) Cells were incubated with 100 μM of YC-1 with or without z-VAD-fmk for 48 h. The cell viability was determined by MTT assay. (B) TUNEL assay, (C) caspase-9 and (D) caspase-3 activities were analyzed in CAR cells treated with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μM of YC-1 for 48 h. Data are presented as the mean ± sd (n = 3). ***P < 0.001 versus untreated control.