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Table 3

Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval of contracting pneumonia associated with predialysis chronic kidney disease and certain comorbidities.

Crude
Adjusted
Variable HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Sex (male vs. female) 1.29 (1.22, 1.37) 1.33 (1.25, 1.41)
Age (per one year) 1.04 (1.04, 1.05) 1.04 (1.03, 1.04)
Predialysis chronic kidney disease 1.46 (1.38, 1.55) 1.52 (1.43, 1.60)
Baseline comorbidities (yes vs. no)
 Alcohol-related disease 1.27 (1.11, 1.45) 1.35 (1.18, 1.55)
 Cancer 1.57 (1.36, 1.80) 1.30 (1.12, 1.49)
 Cardiovascular disease 2.15 (2.03, 2.28) 1.24 (1.17, 1.33)
 Chronic liver disease 0.93 (0.87, 1.00) - -
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2.12 (1.98, 2.26) 1.40 (1.31, 1.51)
 Hyperlipidemia 0.96 (0.91, 1.02) - -
 Hypertension 2.01 (1.89, 2.14) 1.03 (0.96, 1.11)
 Diabetes mellitus 1.99 (1.87, 2.11) 1.59 (1.49, 1.69)

Variables found to be statistically significant in a univariable model were further examined in a multivariable model. Adjustments for sex, age, alcohol-related disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus.