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Table 6

In vitro studies of mechanisms on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in iodinated contrast media.

In-vitro cell lines Iodinated contrast media Dose Time of treatment Results References
KRK52-E (Rat kidney epithelial cell) Iodixanol (Visipaque)
Ioversol (Optiray)
Iohexol (Omnipaque)
Iopromide (Ultravist)
150 mgI/ml 0.5 h, 1h , 3 h , 6 h , 12 h , 24 h. 1. Decreasing cell proliferation by MTT assay.
2. Induce cells death by Trypan blue assay.
3. Increasing apoptosis by hematoxylin-stained.
[60]
NRK52-E (Rat tubular cells) Iohexol (Omnipaque) 100 mgI/ml 24 h 1. Decreasing cell proliferation by MTT assay.
2. Increasing apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay.
3. Increasing caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c protein levels by western.
4. Decreasing cell viability by iohexol was aggravated with 3-MA pretreatment.
[61]
LLC-PK1 (Pig renal tubular epithelial cells) Iohexol (Omnipaque)
Iodixanol (Visipaque)
100 mgI/ml 24 h 1. Decreasing cell proliferation by MTT assay.
2. Increasing apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay.
3. Increasing caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 protein levels by western.
[62]
HK-2 (human embryonic proximal tubule) Iopamiro (Iopamidol) 200 mgI/ml 0 h
12 h
24 h
1. Decreasing cell proliferation by MTT assay.
2. Increasing apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay.
3. The mRNA level of Bax was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased by qPCR.
4. Increasing Bax, caspase-3 protein levels and decreasing Bcl-2, HSP70 protein levels by western.
[63]
LLC-PK1 (Pig renal tubular epithelial cells) Iodixanol (Visipaque) 4.7-75 mgI/ml 2h , 24h 1. Decreasing cell proliferation by MTT assay. [58]
HK-2 (human embryonic proximal tubule) Iopromide (Ultravist) 40 mgI/ml
20 mgI/ml
10 mgI/ml
24-72 h 1. Caused the breaking of intercellular connections and cell migration by scratch assay.
2. Increasing SGK, SNAIL1, CTGE, COL1A1 mRNA levels by qPCR
[64]
LLC-PK1 (Pig renal tubular epithelial cells) Ioversol (Optiray) 100 mgI/ml 24 h 1. Increasing caspase-3 protein activity by caspase-3 activity assay [56]
HK-2 (human embryonic proximal tubule) Ioversol (Optiray) 100 μL/ml
200 μL/ml
24 h 1. Decreasing cell proliferation by MTT and LDH assay. [55]
HK-2 (human embryonic proximal tubule) Iodixanol (Visipaque) 25 mgI/ml
50 mgI/ml
100 mgI/ml
200 mgI/ml
2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24h 1. Decreasing cell proliferation by CellTiter 96 assay. [53]
LLC-PK1 (Pig renal tubular epithelial cells) Iodixanol (Visipaque) 18.75-75 mgI/ ml 24 h 1. Decreasing cell proliferation by BrdU assay
2. Increasing apoptotic cells by cytoplasmic oligonucleosomes ELISA assay.
[52]