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Table 2

Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of pyogenic liver abscesses associated with oral orticosteroid use, other forms of corticosteroids, and comorbidities.

Crude
Adjusted
Variable OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Sex (male vs. female) 0.97 (0.83, 1.14)
Age (per year) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
Oral corticosteroid use (never used as a reference)
     Current use 1.47 (1.21, 1.79) 1.40 (1.14, 1.70)
     Recent use 1.06 (0.79, 1.42) 1.01 (0.76, 1.36)
     Past use 1.06 (0.84, 1.35) 1.03 (0.81, 1.31)
Other forms of corticosteroids (never used as a reference)
     Ever used 0.92 (0.79, 1.08)
Comorbidities (yes vs. no)
     Alcohol-related diseases 1.43 (1.07, 1.93) 1.47 (1.09, 1.98)
     Biliary stones 1.56 (1.24, 1.97) 1.59 (1.26, 2.01)
     Chronic kidney diseases 1.51 (1.10, 2.08) 1.53 (1.10, 2.11)
     Chronic liver diseases 1.14 (0.97, 1.36)
     Diabetes mellitus 1.17 (0.99, 1.39)

Variables found to be statistically significant in a univariable model were further examined in a multivariable model. Adjusted for alcohol-related diseases, biliary stones, and chronic kidney diseases.