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Table 1

Experimental studies on the effect of LILI on spermatogenesis and sperm quality.

No Experimental model Results Illumination parameters* Reference
1. Stallions Activation of the sexual reflexes of stallions (reduction of the time of preparation for the mount by 2-3 times and the number of mounts expended for 1 ejaculate), an increase in the activity of spermatozoa and rate of fertilization of mares. 1. 890
2. pulsed
3. 5-7 W
4. -
5. 500
6. 0, 5-1 (-)
7. -
8. 10
9. Daily
10. Laser acupuncture and externally on the testes
Adamkovskaya M.V., 2004 [36]
2. Sperm, buffalo Increase of the semen quality parameters. Maximum improvement was observed after 4 minutes of exposure 1. 532
2. continuous
3. 1 mW
4. 1,32 mW/cm2
5. -
6. 1-5
7. 0.076, 0.15,0.23, 0.31, 0.38 J/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. from above, homogeneously
Abdel-Salam Z. et al, 2011 [39]
3. Sperm, dogs Improvement and maintenance of sperm motility over time, decrease of the L-lactate production rate. 1. 655
2. -
3. 21,7 mW
4. -
5. -
6. 103/154/258 s
7. 4/6/10 J/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. from above, homogeneously
Corral-Baqués M.I. et al, 2005 [40]
4. Sperm, dogs The most changes were observed when output power 49.7 mW was used: increase of the progressive velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linear coefficient (LIN), straightness (STR), wobble (WOB) and beat cross frequency (BCF) and reduction of the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH). The output power 6,84 mW was the only one to keep the same motility parameters 45 min after illumination. 1. 655
2. continuous
3. 6,8/15,4/33,1/49,7 mW
4. -
5. -
6.
7. 3,34 J (5.97 J/cm2)
8. -
9. -
10. -
Corral-Baqués M.I. et al, 2009 [41]
5. Sperm, bulls No differences in motility parameters. Increase in ROS generation (with 5 mW compared to 7.5 and 10 mW, and with 10 min compared to 5 and 1 min of illumination). Illumination with 5 mW caused more acrossomal/plasma membrane damage, and an increase in the number of cell with intermediate and higher mitochondrial potential. 1. 633
2. -
3. 5 / 7,5 / 10 mW
4. -
5. -
6. 1, 5, 10
7. 30, 150, 300 / 45, 230, 450 / 60, 300, 600 mJ/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. through a spatial filter, omogeneously
Dreyer T.R. et al., 2011 [43]
6. Sperm, sea urchin Effect on the locomotor activity of sperm, 2–5 times increasing the percentage of active cells depending on the time after exposure. 1. LED 650 / laser 635
2. - 3. -
4. 90, 250, 750 / 290 mW/cm2
5. -
6. -
7. 0,07, 0,7, 7, 70 / 3 mJ/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. 19 LEDs matrix at a distance of 10 cm / at a distance of 12,5 cm
Drozdov A.L. et al, 2014 [44]
7. Sperm, Echiuroid, Urechis unicinctus Enhancement of the respiratory rate of sperm in the presence of CO in proportion to the fluence rate. A sharp and large peak was observed at 430 nm, broad and small peaks at 530 and 570 nm. 1. 350 nm (fluence rate 7.7 x 1015 fotons/cm2/s)
400 (6.5 × 1015)
430 (9.9 × 1015)
450 (1.1 × 1016)
500 (1.0 × 1016)
530 (1.1 × 1016)
570 (1.0 × 1016)
600 (9.7 × 1015)
650 (7.9 × 1015)
Fujiwara A. et al., 1991 [45]
8. Sperm, rabbit Illuminated samples during in vitro liquid storage better maintained motility, acrosome integrity and viability. Stimulation of the sperm mitochondrial respiratory chain increases the viability of sperm cells. 1. 633
2. continuous
3. 6 mW
4. -
5. -
6. -
7. 3.96, 6.12, 9 J/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. -
Iaffaldano N. et al, 2010 [46]
9. Sperm, frozen/thawed, chicken, pheasant and turkey The possibility for restoration of motility of cryopreserved spermatozoa. Increase in sperm motility of turkey sperm, increase in COX activity in pheasant and turkey sperm 1. 633
2. continuous
3. 6 mW
4. -
5. -
6. -
7. 3,96, J/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. -
Iaffaldano N. et al, 2013 [47]
10. Sperm, bulls Acceleration of Ca2+ transport. Laser can stimulate Ca2+ exchange through the cell membrane that causes transient changes in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration which control motility and acrosome reaction in spermatozoa and can trigger mitosis in other cells. 1. 630 / 780
2. -
3. 35, 10 / 13, 40 mW
4. -
5. -
6. -
7. 2-30 J/cm2 6. -
6. -
8. -
9. -
10. -
Lubart R. et al., 1992 [48]
11. Sperm, bovine An accelerated Ca2+ uptake by the mitochondria after He-Ne and inhibition after high intensity illumination. The ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake by the sperm plasma membrane vesicles was not changed by 633nm and was enhanced by 780 nm. 1. 633/780
2. -
3. 13/24 mW
4. 0,03-1,2 W/cm2
5. -
6. 1-15 min
7. -
8. -
9. -
10. -
Lubart R. et al., 1996 [49]
12. Sperm, bulls Inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by sperm mitochondria and enhancement of Ca2+ binding to sperm plasma membranes. 1. 780 ± 5
2. -
3. 3-25 mW
4. -
5. -
6. 1-20 min
7. -
8.
9. -
10. -
Lubart R. et al, 1997 [50]
13. Human sperm, patients with Asthenzoo-spermia Increase of progressive motility with 4 and 6 J/cm2 at the times of 60 and 45 min, respectively. 1. 830
2. continuous
3. 100 mW
4. -
5. -
6. 26,8 / 40.2 / 67 s
7. 4 / 6/ 10 J/cm2
8.
9. -10. from above, homogeneously
Salman Yazdi R. et al, 2014 [54]
14. Human sperm, normal subjects and patients with infertility disorders. Stimulation of sperm motility (most effective with 32 J/cm2) but not velocity. Non-motile live spermatozoa probably are stimulated. 1. 647
2. -
3. -
4. -
5. -
6. 80 / 80/ 80/ 80/ 80/ 160 s
7. 0,5 / 1,0 / 2,0 / 4,0 / 8,0/ 32 J/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. -
Sato H. et al., 1984 [56]
15. Sperm, bulls Modulation of bovine sperm function by 10 min illumination, increase of motility parameters and mitochondrial potential. 1. 633
2. continuous
3. 5/ 7,5/ 10 mW
4. 0,51 / 0,765 / 1,020 mW/cm2
5. -
6. 5, 10
7. 0,156, 0.312/ 0.234, 0,468/ 0,312, 0,624, J/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. homogenously over the entire dish
Siqueira A.F.P. et al., 2016 [57]
16. Sperm, ram and fish (tilapia) UV or blue light generates high levels of ROS, resulting in a decrease in motility and fertility. In tilapia sperm, red and white light, which induce low levels of ROS, were found to improve motility and fertilization, while in ram sperm, only red light slightly improved the motility to a small extent. 1. 400-800 / 660 / 360 / 294
2. -
3. 40 / 10 / 1,5/ 0,1 mW/cm2
4. -
5. -
6. -
7. -
8.
9. -
10. -
Zan-Bar T. et al., 2005 [59]
17. Sperm, boars Structural changes in boar semen elements, mainly in the lipid component. 1. 633
2. -
3. 0,7-08, mW
4. -
5. -
6. 15, 30, 60, 120 ?
7. -
8. -
9. -
10. -
Lisichenko N.L. et al., 2000 [61]
18. Spermatozoa, eggs, fertilized eggs, embryos, and larvae of Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus LILI does not induce morphological damage on the irradiated P. lividus gametes whose zygotes generate normal embryos and larvae. Overstimulation of some sperm leading to an accelerated cleavage of sea urchin zygotes is not deleterious to a correct embryogenesis. 1. 808
2. continuous
3. 1 /3 W
4. -
5. -
6. -
7. 64 /192 J/cm2
8. -
9. -
10. in contact and perpendicular to the surfaces of an Eppendorf tube or a chamber of a multiwall plate
Amaroli A. et al., 2017 [62]
1

wavelength, nm

2

mode of laser operation of the

3

power

4

power density

5

frequency, Hz

6

exposure per 1 zone (total time of procedure), min

7

energy density, J/cm2

8

number of procedures per course

9

periodicity

10

technique

*

sequence of the presentation of laser illumination parameters

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