Volume 8, Number 2, June 2018
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||28 May 2018|
Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility
O.K. Skobelkin State Scientific Center of Laser Medicine under the Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow, 121165, Russia
2 N.A. Lopatkin Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology, Moscow, 105425, Russia
* Corresponding author. Doctor of Biological Sciences, PhD of Technical Sciences, Leading Researcher of The Federal State-Financed Institution “O.K. Skobelkin State Scientific Center of Laser Medicine under the Federal Medical Biological Agency”, Moscow, 121165 Russia. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (S. V. Moskvin).
Accepted: 1 March 2018
In half of the cases, the infertility of the couple is due to the disorder of the male fertility. The leading factors that cause male infertility are urogenital infections, disorders of the immune system, testicular and prostate pathology, as well as endocrine disorders.
Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is a very effective physical therapy method, used in many areas of medicine, including obstetrics and gynaecology, andrology and urology; and it is recommended as an integral part of the complex treatment of infertility.
The literature review showed that LLLT is beneficial in treating male infertility. Laser can significantly improve the survival, motility and speed of movement of spermatozoa. Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can eliminate infiltrative-exudative changes, improve reproductive and copulatory functions. Local illumination of red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra should be combined with intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) of red (635 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (365 nm) spectra.
Key words: Male infertility / Sperm motility / Low level laser therapy
© Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access by China Medical University
Open Access This article is distributed under terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original author(s) and source are credited.
Translational medicine promotes a faster implementation of scientific achievements in the field of practical public health, allowing a personalization of treatment, which positively affects its results. This interaction was described as "Bench-to-Bedside" or "Bedside-to-Bench" . This is an interdisciplinary field of modern medicine, based on the achievements of science: physiology, molecular biology, genetics and clinical research, created to ensure a higher efficiency of medical services.
Laser therapy is a vivid example of interdisciplinary medicine, which was based on the fundamental research in the field of physiology, biophysics and biochemistry, resulting in the emergence of highly effective therapeutic techniques that take into account the individual characteristics of the patient. However, it is only possible to see the full potential of laser therapy by strictly following the rules, approved by LLLT standards [2, 3] and using appropriate equipment.
Male infertility is a multifactorial syndrome that includes a wide range of disorders, a symptom of many different pathological conditions affecting both the sexual and other body systems: endocrine, nervous, blood, and immune [4-6].
According to the recommendations of World Health Organisation (WHO) (2000) , 16 main nosologies are distinguished, each of which, in turn, includes upwards of several dozen specific pathogenetic factors, 4 of 16 diagnoses are descriptive, without indicating the true cause: idiopathic oligo-, astheno-, terato- and azoospermia.
Sexually active couples, not protected during the year and not having had any children, according to WHO, are regarded as infertile. During the first year, about 25% of couples do not get pregnant. Of these, 15% seek medical help, and less than 5% do not succeed. In half of the cases, the infertility of the couple is due to the disorder of the male fertility. Causes of male infertility can be congenital or due to acquired abnormalities of the genitals, infections of the genitourinary system, increased scrotal temperature (varicocele), endocrine disorders, genetic abnormalities and immunological factors .
It is suggested that most idiopathic forms are genetically due to mutations and polymorphisms of many genes . However, this hypothesis does not have rigorous proof and requires detailed studies . Certainly, some pathologies are associated with a mutation, that is, damage to the DNA, but there is no doubt that in the overwhelming majority of cases, this is only the result of epigenetic changes in the genome that are reversible . At the same time, it is known that low-intensity laser light not only effectively protects cells from DNA damage by various physical and chemical pathogenic factors, but is also able to activate "necessary" genes, which is often used in breeding . This review by Miktadova A.V. et al. has dozens of references to prove this.
Data on the main causes of male infertility are extremely controversial [4-6, 12-15]. It is most likely that such a significant spread of data is due to differences in the methods of assessing the patients' condition, the diagnostic methods used, the presence or absence of various devices. Of course, the influence is also exerted by the country in which the research was conducted.
However, we can confidently say that the leading factors that have the greatest impact on male fertility are the consequences of urogenital infections, including viral infections [16-18], and related disorders of the immune system, testicular and prostate pathology (varicocele, epididymoorchitis, prostatitis) [19-23], as well as endocrine disorders [24, 25]. Chronic nonspecific prostatitis, according to different data, causes infertility in 52-76% of cases [26-29].
Diagnosis of male infertility is based on a comprehensive assessment of the condition of the male reproductive system, conducted in a well-known sequence with the application of anamnestic, clinical, laboratory and special survey methods. To date, there is a variety of diagnostic methods of examination , although in general, diagnostic issues need a deeper and more comprehensive research.
The most important component of the treatment is the elimination of potentially harmful environmental factors, work and lifestyle. With some anomalies, for example, cryptorchidism, injuries, infections, the effects of toxic substances and medicines, infertility can be prevented. To restore the fertility of men, it is necessary:
to establish a normal work and sleep cycle, receive adequate nutrition, treatment of concomitant diseases, adjust the rhythm of sexual life;
to eliminate overheating, to reduce physical loads when practicing extreme sports;
to eliminate the factors that cause depression, the state of fear and neuroses.
The fulfilment of these conditions in many cases may contribute to the improvement of the spermogram indexes [4, 5, 8], therefore, in most cases, the causes of the disease are nonspecific violations of physiological processes affecting spermatogenesis.
Unfortunately, etiotropic and pathogenetic treatments that give good results are, in most cases, inapplicable because it is impossible to unambiguously establish the specific cause of the disease and having a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of the development of the disease. Bozhedomov V.A. et al. (2013) , criticize the "empirical", i.e., nonspecific therapy for inefficiency (although not mentioning physical therapy, including low level laser therapy, as well as balneology), indicate the need for "tertiary prevention" with the aim of reducing complications after the application of other methods of treatment.
Attention is drawn to the fact that practically in any review of scientific literature and monographs on male infertility, there is no mention of physical therapy methods of treatment. Nevertheless, low level laser therapy, which has been actively developing in recent years, not only has almost no contraindications and side effects, but also has pronounced protective properties , and most importantly, demonstrates the highest effectiveness of treatment in many areas of medicine, including in obstetrics and gynaecology , andrology and urology [31-33] and is recommended as an integral part of the complex solution of the infertility problem , i.e., it is successfully applied by those specialists who somehow face the problem of infertility.
In many cases, childless partnerships are a problem for couples , but it is quite obvious that in order to study the issues of interaction between the parties, it is necessary to understand as closely as possible the corresponding violations inherent in each sex, and also to justify the possibility of using low level laser therapy. Therefore, in this article, only male infertility is considered, but with the prospect of also studying the possible influence of low-intensity laser illumination (LILI) on female fertility, including within the framework of solving some issues arising during in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Understanding the biomodulating processes that result from the absorption of LILI and the underlying methodology of low level laser therapy (LLLT), have allowed us to substantiate many methods, and also to optimize the already known ones in different fields of medicine. The primary mechanism of the LILI biomodulatory action is the response of the organism to non-specific, that is, not associated with specific acceptors, absorption of laser light in various cells, resulting in a short-term increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the cytosol, the propagation of waves of increased Ca2+ concentration both in cells and in various biotissues. Following this, an organism response develops (secondary mechanisms), which begins with the activation of Ca2+ -dependent processes [2, 34].
The action of the laser beam for the study of the various physiological processes that determine, in particular, the motility of spermatozoa began almost from the moment of the appearance of lasers . Numerous studies confirm the positive influence of LILI on the spermatozoa of various animals, their motility and the content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) increases [36–59], cell life expectancy increases  as well as the probability of fertilization increases [61, 62]. But it must be noted that the research conditions were significantly different, and the parameters of the laser illumination technique are not accurately described (Table 1), which does not allow assessing the reliability and reproducibility of these results.
It is the increase in Ca2+ concentration, including that caused by laser illumination, that stimulates the work of the mitochondria and the synthesis of ATP [2, 63], which plays a key role in providing motility of spermatozoa [64-66]. The relationship between the Ca2+ -dependent release of NO (nitrogen oxide) in illuminated spermatozoa (optimal exposure 5 minutes) is also indicated with an increase in their activity , although it is more likely that this is only a secondary effect.
Most of the experiments were performed in vitro, but there are exceptions. In particular, M.D. Porras et al. (1986)  showed an increase in the number of spermatogonia and activation of spermatogenesis after the irradiation of mice testes with continuous infrared LILI. A significant increase in the production of testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testes of mice (Ley-dig cells) is also reported as a result of laser illumination by a red continuous LILI with a 633 nm wavelength [69-71].
Taha M.F. and Valorejerdi M.R.  performed laser illumination with continuous LILI with a 830 nm wavelength in modulated mode (power 30mW, frequency 300Hz) directly on the testes of Wistar rats. Both stimulating and spermatogenesis-inhibiting effects were demonstrated, depending on the power density and exposure of laser light. Errors of predecessors were repeated by other authors many years later, already working with completely unacceptable parameters on the testicles of rams and getting the expected negative result [2, 73]. Two important conclusions can be drawn from these studies: you do not need to concentrate the laser beam at a point, and it is also impermissible to shine for more than 1.5 minutes per zone. It is also not difficult to understand that exposure to high-intensity UV light is detrimental to cells . Therefore, the selection of parameters for laser illumination in order to activate life processes must be approached with caution and preliminary justification.
Numerous studies indicate a direct relationship between an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the stimulation of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa in both animals and humans [48-51, 75-83]. It should be noted that in a number of works, conclusions are drawn (erroneous, in our opinion) about the leading role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mechanisms of the biomodulating action of LILI [78, 79, 83-86]. But this is completely wrong, ROS are only secondary products of laser-activated cellular metabolism [2; 63], that is, a consequence, not a cause.
An increase in the concentration of Ca2+ causes the formation of ROS and the activation of antioxidant system as a whole, and not vice versa . This is indirectly confirmed by the fact that the kinetics of the release of ROS depends on the energy, rather than on the power of LILI, and the most important component is the exposure , which can not be in the case of a direct photochemical reaction, when the power of a light source is more important. Moreover, direct experiments showed that ROS are released under the action of LILI by activation of Ca2+ -dependent mechanisms [89, 90].
Laser biomodulation appears to be more efficient and less expensive technology, which can be used with a fairly good scientific basis to improve artificial insemination and the effectiveness of embryonic systems . As a result of laser illumination in vitro, the quality of the semen of bulls, rabbits and poultry used increases after a prolonged storage in the frozen state: spermatozoa penetrating ability (capacitation) is increased, their acrosomal reaction is induced with decreasing percentage of dead cells [46, 47, 91-95].
It is necessary to pay attention to studies in which it has been shown that laser illumination with continuous LILI of the red spectrum (633 nm, 10 mW, light spot area 0.125cm2, exposure 1-5 s) of immature oocytes of cows in vitro negatively affects the process of their maturation , although this was not observed in other analogous observations [97-102]. Perhaps the whole point is in the parameters of the illumination techniques and the differences in the experimental models. This question needs to be studied additionally, but it is necessary to understand that exposure to laser light with high energy density can harm or even kill the embryo. This is a fact that has been known for a long time . Therefore, to ensure the safe operation of lasers, it is necessary to be guided by the relevant regulatory documents, the data of numerous studies and common sense.
Another important well-known fact is that the emergence and passage of dozens (up to 50) of waves of an increased concentration of calcium ions released from the endoplasmic reticulum depot is the essential condition for fertilization throughout the entire ovum volume . The mechanisms of realization and the physiological necessity of this are still unknown, although the phenomenon has been actively studied for many years [105, 106], but one thing is clear that LILI realizes its biomodulating properties through activation of Ca2+ -dependent intracellular reactions, activating the same calcium depot. Consequently, laser illumination can potentially interfere with fertilization breaking the calcium transitions from the bound to the free state and vice versa. Perhaps, such specific processes peculiar only to oocytes somehow participate in the process of their maturation. While this is not known, we will therefore adhere to the point of view that we should avoid using any laser treatment technology on oocytes and egg cells.
Data from research conducted for animal breeding can be also used in medicine. Moreover, there is quite convincing evidence that low-intensity, both laser and incoherent light, can significantly improve the survival, motility and speed of movement of human spermatozoa [77, 79, 107-122].
Experimental studies on the effect of LILI on spermatogenesis and sperm quality.
In most studies conducted on animals, illumination was carried out almost exclusively by continuous LILI in the red spectrum (633-650 nm), and much less frequently in other spectral ranges (Table 2).
However, laser light with such parameters is impossible or almost impossible to use effectively in the clinic due to purely biophysical features (small depth of influence). Part of the problem is solved by using a different kind of light guide to deliver light energy to the right place through the cavities, for example, rectal illumination of the prostate gland, and the full use of LLLT is possible with pulsed LILI of the red and infrared (IR) spectrum [2, 124]. It is important that the general patterns obtained from experimental studies are reproduced qualitatively in the clinic.
Only one study used a pulsed infrared laser (905 nm wavelength) with a power of 50W (pulse duration of 200 ns), power density of 50W/cm2, and even with frequency of 10,000 Hz, motility increased and there was an absence of DNA damage. Probably, a positive result was obtained due to a small exposure time (30 seconds), and it was absent in normo-and asthenospermia, and was observed to be very significant (8.4 times), only with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia 30 minutes after laser illumination . This confirms the well-known opinion that the degree of influence of LILI correlates with the severity of existing disorders (diabetes, neuropathy, etc.) . There could not be a negative impact on DNA, even with such clearly overestimated energy parameters.
The absence of damage to the DNA of human spermatozoa has also been established for a continuous LILI of the red spectrum (wavelength 633 nm), even at a sufficiently high-power density (31mW/cm2) the illumination was carried out for 30 minutes (!). Even more so, the motility of spermatozoa has increased insignificantly . At the same time, it is known that the effect of LILI can effectively protect the reproductive system from external stress factors (immobilization stress by single binding of rats for 6 hours in the position on the back) [125, 126], as well as from the pathogenic effect of radiation (such as disorders of spermatogenesis in the form of partial blocking of the formation of mature spermatozoa from postmeiotic cells (spermatids) and the development of destructive processes at the cellular and subcellular levels) [127-129].
Negative effects on the reproductive system of male mice (decrease in the concentration and the activity of sperm dehydrogenases), while maintaining fertility, are manifested only after illumination 5 times a week continuously for 4 hours a day with completely prohibitive and unsafe parameters: wavelength 1064 nm, pulsed mode, power 5MW, light pulse duration 12 ns, frequency 12.5 Hz, pulse energy 0.03J, and average power 360 mW only after 35 days . In other words, in order to damage the organism using laser light using correct parameters, you need to try very, very hard.
S.V. Goryunov (1995, 1996) [111, 112] unequivocally showed that the optimal exposure, for both the wavelength of LILI 633 nm (continuous mode) and for 890 nm (pulsed mode, pulse duration100 ns, power 5 mW), the optimal exposure at which the sperm motility, their oxidative activity and cellular metabolism increases to the greatest extent is five minutes, while the pulsed mode is a bit more efficient , even with the fact that the laser light in the IR spectrum is absorbed less than in the red spectrum.
With regard to the choice of the optimal wavelength, opinions diverge. For example, it is shown that, when illuminated in vitro, sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia rises on average by 4-5 times almost independently of the wavelength of the light source (470, 625, 660 and 850 nm) , and in studying the respiratory rate of spermatozoa of marine worms, a pronounced spectral dependence was observed in the wavelength range of 35-650 nm (maximum efficiency in the range of 400-430 nm) . P. Gabel et al. (2009)  are convinced that the result is influenced by all exposure parameters: wavelength, power, exposure and coherence.
In the work of A.V. Stolyarov et al. (2002) , it was shown that artificial insemination of piglets with seed material after the preliminary illumination by LILI of different wavelengths (565, 595 and 660nm) allowed them to obtain the greatest increase in the number of pigs in the nest (+45%) at a wavelength of 595nm and exposure 0.5 min, and also good but less at 660 nm and one minute exposure (increase +25%).
We would also like to draw attention to the fact that all regularities were observed with direct exposure to spermatozoa in vitro, and when exposed to the patient's body, it is also necessary to take into account the anatomical features of the human body. Based on well-known generalized considerations, in particular, the understanding of biophysics of the processes of absorption and scattering of laser light, for clinical practice, the wavelength of 635 nm (red spectrum) is most often chosen when exposed to tissues and organs located at a depth of up to 5cm, and 890-904 nm (IR spectrum) when they are deeper (up to 15 cm) [2, 124].
The wavelengths of light sources in experimental studies on the properties of spermatozoa.
It should be noted that if the experimental studies on the influence of LILI of various in vitro and in vivo models which are somehow related to infertility are mostly by foreign authors, then clinical studies are performed almost exclusively by Russian scientists. Moreover, in Russia there is already very considerable practical experience of the use of laser therapy for these purposes.
In one of the few foreign clinical trials, the testes of men with oligozoospermia aged from 29 to 43 years old were illuminated with red continuous (633 nm, 12.5 mW) and pulsed infrared LILI (904 nm, a matrix of 5 laser diodes, a pulsed power of 12 W, frequency 800 Hz) for four minutes, twice a week, for only 10 sessions. Libido increased in 15 out of 20 patients alongside a significant improvement in the quality of sperm (increasing their motility and total number, reducing the number of abnormal ones) .
A.I. Gladkova (2011)  presented the results of her own multi-year experimental and clinical studies, as well as the work of her colleagues, which were used to substantiate the possibility of using laser therapy in andrology, showed the influence of various methods of laser influence on sexual behaviour, hormonal homeostasis, spermatogenesis and ability to fertilize [135-142].
Many researchers draw attention to the fact that the impact of pulsed infrared LILI with a transrectal delivery of laser light energy is preferable in the treatment of patients with chronic nonspecific prostatitis. Variation in frequency depending on the activity of the inflammatory process in the prostate gland allows to individualize therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to achieve better treatment results. LLLT in combination with traditional treatment is characterized by the more effective and rapid relief of the main symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a reduction in the frequency of complications [143-147]. The effect of traditional methods of treatment is intensified and potentiated through the generalization of the effect and the complex response of all homeostasis systems. The immuno-correcting action of LILI is caused by the stimulation of leukopoeza, including T-lymphocytes, which contributes to the rapid elimination of pathogens of urogenital infection. In this case, the number of patients with oligozoospermia after the treatment course decreases by more than 2-fold, and with asthenozoospermia by almost 4-fold [143-147]. In addition, laser action exerts a disaggregating effect on sperm, similar to the hypocoagulation effect of LILI on blood, which as a result improves the fertilizing properties of seminal fluid .
In another work, the laser therapeutic device with two infrared laser emitters (wavelength 890 nm, pulse power up to 10 W, 80 to 3000 Hz) was used. According to a method which based on the experience of other researchers using laser therapy, all patients underwent daily laser illumination on both testes simultaneously in the lateral and longitudinal projections for 10 days. This effect in the form of monotherapy with varicocele increases the concentration of active-mobile forms of spermatozoa from 25% to 37% and the number of morphologically normal forms from 27% to 39%. With idiopathic infertility, the use of local laser therapy causes an increase in sperm motility from 19% to 34% and an increase in the number of morphologically normal forms of spermatozoa from 13% to 23% [148-152].
This data is corroborated by the results of the studies, where the method was carried out in a similar manner, and the authors recommend that ligation of the spermatozoa by LILI prior to IVF is mandatory [153, 154]. Similar recommendations can be found in other works .
Clinical and experimental studies testify to the stimulating effect of LILI on the enhancement of the kinetic capabilities of spermatozoa and the functional-metabolic status of ejaculate neutrophils in patients with chlamydial infection, which can be used under appropriate clinical conditions [107-110].
For men of reproductive age who are in a partnership for more than one year, as well as those with symptoms of prostatitis, vesiculitis or epididymorchitis, it is necessary to conduct a clinical and microbiological examination to eliminate any hidden urogenital infections (chlamydia, trichomonias, mycoplasma genitalia, ureaplasma, herpes simplex virus, etc.) or sexually transmitted diseases, before the start of treatment, including an examination of all sexual partners. Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can eliminate infiltrative-exudative changes in the prostate gland, and the appointment depends on the stage of the inflammatory process in the prostate gland. Carrying out LLLT can improve the outflow of inflamed secretions from the glands of the prostate, increase local immunity, eliminate pain and dysuric symptoms and improve reproductive and copulatory functions [155, 156].
Since a direct link between the presence of epididymoortitis and infertility and the effectiveness of laser therapy in treating this category of patients is questionable [157-160], the inclusion of its complex recovery of male fertility is desirable.
A reliable large therapeutic effect that has positive, longlasting lasting results in the treatment of infertility in men with chronic inflammatory diseases of the organs of reproduction is the use of IR LILI. The local effect on the fields of projection of the sexual glands is 91.7%, and the use of laser acupuncture is 85.2%, compared with traditional medicinal therapy, which is 76.8%. The local effect allows increasing the number of actively mobile sperm forms in the ejaculation by 45-50%, removing the inflammatory process and restoring microcirculation in the sex glands. Exposure to acupuncture points (AP) (Pat. 2185211 RU)  of the lumbar region further increases the concentration and reduces the number of pathological forms of sperm in the ejaculate by 10-15%, improving the endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis. At the same time, a sufficient therapeutic effect is achieved after 5 procedures. An additional course of LLLT is carried out 6-9 months after the main course [162-165].
A.B. Ikhayev (2013)  applied a combined-correlated method of laser therapy in patients with chronic nonspecific prostatitis with infertility in a strong and strongly-medium sexual constitution. A vibro-magneto-laser massage of the prostate gland  with the rectal attachment VMLG10 (LILI+magnetic field+vibration) to the laser therapeutic device "Matrix-Urolog" (produced by Research Center Matrix, Russia) (wavelength 635 nm) every second day, five-minute exposure, laser illumination modulation frequency 10Hz, a course of 15 procedures. Patients with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia I-II stage with the duration of chronic abacterial prostatitis (CAP) up to 5 years and the age of up to 40 years, combined illumination therapy is also prescribed according to the method of local laser negative pressure (LLNP) [167; 168] for 12 minutes, every other day. This technique implies that a special flask with a laser head in the form of a ring is put on the penis. A vacuum (negative pressure) of 15-30 kPa is created and simultaneously lasers are illuminating. It repeats in cycles of 1.5 minutes. Under the influence of combined correlated illumination therapy, the algic syndrome is stopped in 75%, dysuric syndrome in 61%, erectile dysfunction in 54% and asthenic-neurotic in 59.4% of patients. Normalized prostate gland size occurs in 80% and pituitary-adrenal-testicular system in 65% of patients with chronic prostatitis with infertility. The experience of clinical application of the proposed method of LLLT for 12 months. showed that after the end of the treatment course, 67.5% of couples were pregnant .
High efficiency is also shown in intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) in the treatment of patients with CAP with impaired fertility. The Matrix-ILBI device (produced by Research Center Matrix, Russia), a wavelength of 635nm, power of 1.5-mW at the output of KIVL-01 (intravenous light guides produced by Research Center Matrix, Russia), for a course of 10 sessions of 10 minutes. 15 patients (37.5%) were in a strong sexual constitution, 14 (35%) were in the middle and 11 (27.5%) were in a weak sexual constitution, a prostate massage was also performed daily (for a course of 15 procedures). As a result of the treatment, normospermia was detected in 72.5% patients with strong and medium sexual constitutions. As a result of the treatment, the concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the blood decreased by 28%, luteinizing hormone by 17%, estradiol by 17%, prolactin (PRL) by 38%, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate - by 18%, testosterone - increased by 33.5%, taking the regulatory data (p > 0.05). As a result of treatment, the functional activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-testicular system occurred in 27 (67.5%) patients with a duration of CAP no more than 5 years. Within one year after the course of treatment, pregnancy occurred in 25 (62.5%) partnered couples in which men were between the ages of 22 and 40 with a strong and medium sexual constitution, with a duration of CAP ≤ 5 years [169-171].
With the main treatment regimens, it is recommended to perform laser acupuncture, the effect of LILI on AP of the lumbar region and balneotherapy (iodine-bromine baths) to improve efficacy [168, 172-175].
Based on these studies in Roszdravnadzor, a complex method of the correction of infertility in patients with chronic prostatitis was recorded .
Patients with reproductive dysfunction alongside even abacterial prostatitis are advised to use ultraviolet blood illumination (UVBI), which is more often used for various disorders of the immune system [29, 177, 178]. Currently, the LUVBI® (laser ultraviolet blood illumination) technique is done intravenously, using only LILI with a wavelength in the range of 365-405 nm and almost always combining every other day with ILBI-635 (wavelength 635 nm, power is 1-2 mW) .
If the hormonal function and spermatogenesis are impaired in men with obesity of no more than 2 grade, it is advisable to prescribe a combined treatment that includes the action of pulsed infrared LILI (890-904 nm) on the collar area (projection of the vertebral arteries at the C3-C7 level and the subscapular region according to the labile technique, scanning with a speed of 1cm/ s) and other physiotherapy methods alongside a standard complex (low-calorie diet, moderate exercise and long-term pharmacotherapy). In case of the violation of the copulatory function, it is advisable to prescribe to patients also a local effect on the testicles (in the lateral and longitudinal projections, 5 minutes for each testicle) and rectal fillings of pantocrine [180-182].
Regarding Slonimskiy B.Yu., a complex treatment program in patients with obesity and impaired fertility can eliminate lipid imbalance, normalize some metabolic parameters, including the content of leptin and TNF-α, which is important for the restoration of fertility. There is a correction of erectile and copulative disorders in the form of recovery to normal values of neurohumoral, psycho-emotional, erectile and ejaculatory components, as well as indicators of erectile function, as is shown by an increase to the physiological norm of the cumulative index of the IIEF scale (The international index of erectile function) (from 14.3 ± 0.3 to 23.8 ± 1.2), improvement of the functional state of the central and peripheral hormonal structures, which is confirmed by the restoration to the values of the physiological norm of sex steroid hormones. After the therapeutic course, restoration of the spermatogenesis disturbed in the initial state is observed, manifested in an increase in the volume of the ejaculate, in the concentration of spermatozoa, in improving their shape and motility. A comprehensive reproductive function restoration program for obese men is a highly effective method, and the achieved therapeutic results in 78.8% of patients persist up to one year .
Analysis of the hormonal profile revealed a tendency to decrease FSH levels in patients with severe oligoastenoteratozoo-spermia from 11.5 mU/ml to 8.0 mU/ml, which indirectly indicated the influence of LILI on Sertoli cells [149, 183].
A special section of publications are patents, where the novelty of the method and/or the device is simultaneously protected, and the results of a study of their effectiveness are given. Patent search made it possible to identify nine patents, to some extent related to fertility, in which LILI is used. Since the full text of all publications is publicly available, only the main provisions are given in table form (Table 3).
Patents in which LILI illumination is associated with various aspects of infertility.
Despite the active debates and discussions on the topic of the presence/absence of "full-fledged" diagnostics, the case of idiopathic sperm quality disorders in more than half of the cases of male infertility is unquestionable. Consequently, in the first place clinicians should consider the non-specific treatment methods aimed at "general improvement" that trigger the mechanisms of sanogenesis, restoration of disturbed homeostasis and normal physiological regulation.
Previously, it was thought that laser therapy was only of an auxiliary nature and is prescribed in conjunction with drug therapy or at the final stage of traditional treatment , but further studies completely refute this view. Analysis of the scientific literature suggests that laser therapy should be used as much as possible in the complex treatment of men with infertility, since the effectiveness of the method is not just high, but often has no alternatives. For laser illumination, it is best to use exclusively pulsed LILI, red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) for local illumination, alternating with continuous LILI with a wavelength of 635 nm (red spectrum) and 365 nm (ultraviolet) for intravenous laser blood illumination.
It is necessary to use the available low level laser therapy methods as widely as possible: local, rectal, laser acupuncture, ILBI, on the projection of various organs, paravertebrally, etc., while setting all parameters of the laser (wavelength, mode of operation, frequency for pulsed lasers, power, density power determined by the method of exposure, exposure, localization), which are established by appropriate regulatory documents and clinical recommendations [3, 193].
- Marincola FM. Translational medicine: a two-way road. J Transl Med. 2003; 1: 1-2. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV. The effectiveness of laser therapy. Series “Effective laser therapy”. Moscow-Tver’: Triada. 2: 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Gerasimenko MYu, Geynits AV, Moskvin SV, Astahkov PV, Babushkina GV, Gushchina, et al. Laser therapy in medical rehabilitation and prevention programs: clinical guidelines. FSBI “Russian Scientific Center for Medical Rehabilitation and Balneology” Ministry of Health of Russia, FSBI “State Scientific Center of Laser Medicine of FMBA of Russia”. Moscow, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Bozhedomov VA, Rokhlikov IM, Tretyakov AA, Lipatova NA, Vinogradov IV. Andrologic aspects of infertile marriage. Meditsinskiy sovet. 2013; 8: 13-7. [Google Scholar]
- Ol’ D, Shuster T, Kvolich S. Male infertility. In: Fal’kone T, Kherd V, eds. Reproductive medicine and surgery. 2013; 616-31. [Google Scholar]
- Jungwirth A, Diemer T, Dohle GR, Giwercman A, Kopa Z, Krausz C, et al. Male infertility. EAU. 2010. [Google Scholar]
- WHO Manual for the Standardized Investigation, Diagnosis and Management of the Infertile Male. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2000; 91. [Google Scholar]
- Shcheplev PA, Apolikhin OI. Male infertility. Consensus discussion. Bull of Reprod Health. 2010; 3-4: 37-44. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Nuti F, Krausz C. Gene polymorphisms/mutations relevant to abnormal spermatogenesis. Reprod. Biomed. Online 2008; 16(4): 504-13. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Miktadova AV, Mashkina EV, Volosovtscova GI, Koygerova ES, Sarayev KN, Shkurat TP. Polymorphism of folate cycle genes and male infertility. Valeologiya. 2014; 1: 38-44. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV, Khadartsev AA. Laser light - it can harm them? (literature review). J New Med Technol. 2016; 23(3): 265-83. [Google Scholar]
- Alyayev YuG, Grigoryan VA, Chalyy ME. Impairment of sexual and reproductive function in men. Moscow: Litterra, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Bozhedomov VA. The male factor in childless marriage - problemsolving strategies. Urologiya. 2016; S1: 29-35. [Google Scholar]
- Chalyi ME, Akhvlediani ND, Kharchilava RR. Male infertility. Urologiya. 2017; S2: 4-19. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Nieschlag E, Behre HM, Nieschlag S. Andrology: Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg; 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Naumenko VA, Kushch AA. Herpes viruses and male infertility - is there any relationship? Probl virology. 2013; 58(3): 4-9. [Google Scholar]
- Naumenko VA, Tyulenev YuA, Pushkar DYu, Segal AS, Kovalev VA, Kurilo LF, et al. Effect of Herpes Simplex virus on spermatogenesis. Urologiya. 2011; 6: 32-6. [Google Scholar]
- Schuppe HC, Pilatz A, Hossain H, Wagenlehner F, Weidner W. Urogenital infection as a risk factor for male infertility. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2017; 114(19): 339-46. doi: 10.3238/arztebl. 2017. 0339. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Al-Shukri SH, Kuzmin IV, Slesarevskaya MN, Sokolov AV. The effect of low-intensity laser radiation on semen parameters in patients with chronic prostatitis. Urolog vedom. 2015; 5(4): 8-12. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Balter RB, Mikhaylov DV, Ivanova TV. Infertile marriage. Samara, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Zhiborev BN. Varicocele and male sterility in view of polygenic hypogonadism nature and the manifestation of dysplasia syndrome of the connective tissue. Rossiyskiy mediko-biologicheskiy vestnik im. akademika I.P. Pavlova. 2007; 4: 72-9. [Google Scholar]
- Condorelli RA, Russo GI, Calogero AE, Morgia G, La Vignera S. Chronic prostatitis and its detrimental impact on sperm parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2017; 40(11): 1209-18. doi: 10.1007/s40618-017-0684-0. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Giamarellou H, Tympanidis R, Bitos N, Leonidas E, Daikos GK. Infertility and chronic prostatitis. Andrologia. 1984; 16(5): 417-22. [Google Scholar]
- Pavlova ZSh, Kalinchenko SYu, Kamalov AA, Tishova YuA, Zhuykov AV, Gusakova DA, et al. Vitamin D dificiency and male infertility actual problems of the 21st century: male infertility, obesity and vitamin D - is there a relationship? Vest Ural Med Akadem Nauki. 2013; 3(45): 26-32. [Google Scholar]
- Tyuzikov IA. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review). Androl Gen Surg. 2013; 2: 5-10. [Google Scholar]
- Arnol’di EK. Chronic prostatitis: problems, experience, prospects. Rostov-na-Donu, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- Imshinetskaya LP. The role of hormonal changes in the pathogenesis of sexual disorders and infertility in chronic nonspecific prostatitis [Abstract of the thesis]. Kiev. 1983. [Google Scholar]
- Mikhaylichenko VV. Pathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis and treatment of copulative and reproductive disorders in men with congestion in the genitourinary venous plexus [Abstract of the thesis]. Saint Petrsburg, 1996. [Google Scholar]
- Satybaldyyev ShR. Medical rehabilitation of patients with chronic prostatitis with reproductive dysfunction [Abstract of the thesis]. Bishkek, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Fedorova TA, Moskvin SV, Apolikhina IA. Laser therapy in obstetrics and gynecology. Moscow-Tver’: Triada, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Ivanchenko LP, Kozdoba AS, Moskvin SV. Laser therapy in urology. Moscow–Tver’: Triada, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV, Gorbani NA. Laser-vacuum massage. Moscow– Tver’: Triada, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV, Geynits AV, Kochetkov AV, Gorbani NA, Ryazanova EA, et al. Laser-vacuum massage LAZMIK in medicine and cosmetology. Moscow–Tver’: Triada, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV. About mechanism of therapeutic influence of lowfrequency laser radiation. J New Med Technol. 2008; 15(1): 167-72. [Google Scholar]
- Goldstein SF. Irradiation of sperm tails by laser microbeam. J Exp Biol. 1969; 51(2): 431-41. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Adamkovskaya MV. Influence of temperament, behavioral characteristics and other factors on the reproductive qualities of stallions: [Abstract of the thesis]. Divovo, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Pataraya LM, Chelidze PV, Chichinadze NK. Influence of laser radiation on the ultrastructure of the testis of rats. In: Endocrinology of male infertility. Tbilisi, 1983: 83-6. [Google Scholar]
- Abdel-Salam Z, Harith MA. Laser researches on livestock semen and oocytes: a brief review. J Adv Res. 2015; 6(3): 311-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2014.11.006. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Abdel-Salam Z, Dessouki SH, Abdel-Salam SA, Ibrahim MA, Harith MA. Green laser irradiation effects on buffalo semen. Theriogenology. 2011; 75(6): 988-94. doi: 10.1016/ j.theriogenology.2010.11.005. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Corral-Baqués MI, Rigau T, Rivera M, Rodríguez-Gil JE, Rigau J. Effect of 655-nm diode laser on dog sperm motility. Lasers Med Sci. 2005; 20(1): 28-34. doi: 10.1007/s10103-005-0332-3 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Corral-Baqués MI, Rivera MM, Rigau T, Rodríguez-Gil JE, Rigau J. The effect of low-level laser irradiation on dog spermatozoa motility is dependent on laser output power. Lasers Med Sci. 2009; 24(5): 703-13. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Corral-Baqués MI, Rivera MM, Rigau T, Rodríguez-Gil JE, Rigau J. The effect of low level laser irradiation on dog sperm motility is dependent on power laser application. Abstracts from 7th International Congress of the World Association for Laser Therapy, 2008. Photomed Laser Surg. 2009; 27(1):186. [Google Scholar]
- Dreyer TR, Siquera TD, Magrini PA, Fiorito PA, Assumpção MEOA, Nichi Met, et al. Biochemical and topological analysis of bovine sperm cells induced by low power laser irradiation. Medical Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions: Proceedings of SPIE-OSA Biomedical Optics, SPIE, 2011, 8092, 80920V. doi: 10.1117/12.890017 [Google Scholar]
- Drozdov AL, Karu TI, Chudnovskii VM, Yusupov VI, Bagratashvili VN. Influence of low-intensity red diode and laser radiation on the locomotor activity of sea urchin sperm. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2014; 457(1): 146-8. doi: 10.1134/S1607672914040085. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Fujiwara A, Tazawa E, Yasumasu I. Activating effect of light irradiation at various wavelength on the respiration in sperm of the echiuroid, Urechis unicinctus, in the presence of carbon monoxide. J Biochem. 1991; 109(3): 486-91. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Iaffaldano N, Rosato MP, Paventi G, Pizzuto R, Gambacorta M, Manchisi A, et al. The irradiation of rabbit sperm cells with He–Ne laser prevents their in vitro liquid storage dependent damage. Anim Reprod Sci. 2010; 119: 123-9. doi: 10.1016/ j.anireprosci.2009.10.005 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Iaffaldano N, Paventi G, Pizzuto R, Passarella S, Cerolini S, Zaniboni L, et al. The post-thaw irradiation of avian spermatozoa with He–Ne laser differently affects chicken, pheasant and turkey sperm quality. Anim Reprod Sci. 2013; 142(3-4):168-72. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2013.09.010. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R, Friedmann H, Levinshal T, Lavie R, Breitbart H. Effect of light on calcium transport in bull sperm cells. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biology. 1992; 15(4): 337-41. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R, Levinshal T, Cohen N, Friedmann H, Breitbart H. Changes in calcium transport in mammalian sperm mitochondria and plasma membrane due to 633 nm and 780 nm irradiation. In: Hofstetter A, Waidelich W, Staehler G, Waidelich R, eds. Laser in der Medizin (Laser in Medicine). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 1996; 449-53. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-80264-5_107 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R, Friedmann H, Sinyakov M, Cohen N, Breitbart H. Changes in calcium transport in mammalian sperm mitochondria and plasma membranes caused by 780 nm irradiation. Lasers Surg Med. 1997; 21(5): 493-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R, Shainberg A, Eichler M. Increased ATP levels in cardiac and sperm cells immediately after broadband visible light illumination. 27th International Congress Laser Medicine & IALMS Courses jointed with W.H.A. World Health Academy “Laser Florence 2013”. Lasers Med Sci. 2013; 28(6): 1415-6. [Google Scholar]
- Marin ML, Velez JR. Efectos de la irradiation laser heli+neon en semen bovino [Tesis]. 1980: 19-90. [Google Scholar]
- Salman Yazdi R, Bakhshi S, Jannat Alipoor F, Akhoond MR, Ansary A. Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility. Int J Fertility Sterility. 2010; 4(Suppl 1): 31-2. [Google Scholar]
- Salman Yazdi R, Bakhshi S, Jannat Alipoor F, Akhoond MR, Borhani S, Farrahi F, et al. Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility. Lasers Med Sci. 2014; 29(1): 97-104. doi: 10.1007/s10103-013-1276-7. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Sato H. Efectos de la luz laser sobre la movilidad y la velocidad de esperma in vitro. Invest Clin Laser. 1986; 3: 80. [Google Scholar]
- Sato H, Landthaler M, Haina D, Schill WB. The effects of laser light on sperm motility and velocity in vitro. Andrologia. 1984; 16(1): 23-5. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Siqueira AFP, Maria FS, Mendes CM, Hamilton TR, Dalmazzo A, Dreyer TR, et al. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on bovine sperm function. Lasers Med Sci. 2016; 31(6): 1245-50. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Wenbin Y, Wenzhong L, Mengzhao L, Baotian Z, Laizeng AI, Tongya L, et al. Effects of laser radiation on Saanen buck’s sperm energy metabolism. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Goats. Beijing, China; 1996. [Google Scholar]
- Zan-Bar T, Bartoov B, Segal R, Yehuda R, Lavi R, Lubart R et al. Influence of visible light and ultraviolet irradiation on motility and fertility of mammalian and fish sperm. Photomed Laser Surg. 2005; 23(6): 549-55. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Shkuratov DYu, Chudnovskiy VM, Drozdov AL. The influence of low intensity laser radiation and superhigh-frequency electromagnetic fields on gametes of marine invertebrates. Tsitologiya. 1997; 39(1): 25-8. [Google Scholar]
- Lisichenko NL, Romodanova EA, Nardid OA, Dyubko TS, Roshal’ AD. Structural changes in the components of boar semen under the influence of small doses of laser irradiation. Fotobiol Fotomed. 2000; 3(3-4): 86. [Google Scholar]
- Amaroli A, Gambardella C, Ferrando S, Hanna R, Benedicenti A, Gallus L, et al. The effect of photobiomodulation on the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus (echinodermata) using higher-fluence on fertilization, embryogenesis, and larval development: an in vitro study. Photomed Laser Surg. 2017; 35(3):127-35. doi: 10.1089/ pho.2016.4136 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Alexandratou E, Yova D, Handris P, Kletsas D, Loukas S. Human fibroblast alterations induced by low power laser irradiation at the single cell level using confocal microscopy. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2002; 1(8):547-52. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Aloyan KA, Matveyev AV, Morev VV, Korneyev IA. Physiology of sperm motility. Urolog Vedom. 2013; 3(4):14-9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Ruiz-Pesini E, Diez C, Lapeña AC, Pérez-Martios A, Montoya J, Alvarez E, et al. Correlation of sperm motility with mitochondrial enzymatic activities. Clin Chem. 1998; 44(8 Pt 1):1616-20. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Rossato M, Di Virgilio F, Rizzuto R, Galeazzi C, Foresta C. Intracellular calcium store depletion and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa: role of calcium and plasma membrane potential. Mol Hum Reprod. 2001; 7(2):119-28. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Ankri R, Friedman H, Savion N, Kotev-Emeth S, Breitbart H, Lubart R. Visible light induces no formation in sperm and endothelial cells. Lasers Surg Med. 2010; 42(4): 348-52. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Porras MD, Bermudez D, Parrado C. Effects biologicos de la radiation laser IR sobre el epitelio seminifero. Invest Clin Laser. 1986; 3(1): 57-60. [Google Scholar]
- Celani MF, Gilioli G, Fano AR. The effect of laser radiation on Leydig cells: Functional and morphological studies. IRCS Med Sci. 1984; 12 (9): 883-4. [Google Scholar]
- Celani MF, Gilioli G, Montanini V, Morrama P. Further evidence that mid laser radiations may stimulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis. IRCS Med Sci. 1985; 13(4): 336-7. [Google Scholar]
- Celani MF, Grandi M, Gilioli G. Changes in mouse Leydig cell streoidogenesis following infrared and helium–neon laser irradiation. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 1987; 80(1): 16-22. [Google Scholar]
- Taha MF, Valojerdi MR. Quantitative and qualitative changes of the seminiferous epithelium induced by Ga. Al. As. (830 nm) laser radiation. Lasers Surg Med. 2004; 34(4): 352-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Alves MB, de Arruda RP, Batissaco L, Florez-Rodriguez SA, de Oliveira BM, Torres MA, et al. Low-level laser therapy to recovery testicular degeneration in rams: effects on seminal characteristics, scrotal temperature, plasma testosterone concentration, and testes histopathology. Lasers Med Sci. 2016; 31(3): 695-704. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Au DW, Chiang MW, Tang JY, Yuen BB, Wang YL, Wu RS. Impairment of sea urchin sperm quality by UV-B radiation: predicting fertilization success from sperm motility. Mar Pollut Bull. 2002; 44(7): 583-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Breitbart H, Wehbie R, Lardy H. Regulation of calcium transport in bovine spermatozoa. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990; 1027(1):72-8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Breitbart H, Wehbie RS, Lardy HA. Calcium transport in bovine sperm mitochondria: Effect of substrates and phosphate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990; 1026(1): 57-63. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Breitbart H, Levinshal T, Cohen N, Friedmann H, Lubart R, et al. Changes in calcium transport in mammalian sperm mitochondria and plasma membrane irradiated at 633 nm (HeNe laser). J Photochem Photobiol B. 1996; 34(2-3):117-21. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Cohen N, Lubart R, Rubinstein S, Breitbart H. Light irradiation of mouse spermatozoa: stimulation of in vitro fertilization and calcium signals. Photochem Photobiol. 1998; 68(3): 407-13. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R, Breitart H, Sofer Y, Lavie R. He-Ne irradiation of human spermatozoa: enhancement in hamster egg penetration. Laser Ther. 1999; 11(4): 171-6. [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R, Breitbart H, Sofer Y, Cohen N, Friedmann H, Bouskila E, et al. Light irradiation of sperm cells stimulates in vitro fertilization. 20th Intern Congress “Laser Florence 2005”. Florence. 2005: S18-S19. [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R., Eichler M., Lavie R., Shainberg A. Flavins are source of low energy visible light-induced oxy radicals formation in cells. 20th Intern Congress “Laser Florence 2005”. Florence. 2005: S21. [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R., Friedmann H., Lavie R. Photobiostimulation as a function of different wavelengths. Laser Ther. 2000 12(1): 38-41. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Lubart R, Shainberg A, Lavie R. EPR spectroscopy of 1O2 reveals enhanced redox activity in low power laser illuminated cell cutures. 15th World Congress of the ISLSMS. Munich, 2003: 155. [Google Scholar]
- Lavi R., Sinyakov M., Eichler M, Isaac A, Zinman T, Shainberget A, et al. Generation of reactive oxygen species and free electrons in visible light illuminated plasma membranes. 20th Intern Congress “Laser Florence 2005”. Florence, 2005: S18. [Google Scholar]
- Lavi R, Shainberg A, Shneyvays V, Hochauser E, Isaac A, Zinman T, et al. Detailed analysis of reactive oxygen species induced by visible light in various cell types. Lasers Surg Med. 2010; 42(6): 473-80. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Shahar S, Wiser A, Ickowicz D, Lubart R, Shulman A, Breitbart H. Light-mediated activation reveals a key role for protein kinase A and sarcoma protein kinase in the development of sperm hyperactivated motility. Hum Reprod. 2011; 26 (9): 2274-82. doi: 10.1093/humrep/der232. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Meier B., Cross A.R., Hancock J.T., Kaup FJ, Jones OT. Identitication ot a superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase system in human fibroblasts. Biochem J. 1991, 275(1): 241-5. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Pal G., Dutta A., Mitra K, Grace MS, Romanczyk TB, et al. Effect of low intensity laser interaction with human skin fibroblast cells using fiber-optic nano-probes. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2007, 86(3): 252-61. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Suzuki K.-J., Nakaji S., Kogawa T, Kumeta K, Oka E, Kitagawa N, et al. Mechanistic approach to the effects of low level laser irradiation (LLLI) with the GaAlAs diode laser on the production of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils as a model for therapeutic modality at a cellular level. Laser Ther. 2005, 14(2): 75-81. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Takahashi I., Umeda T., Oyama T, Shimaya S, Yaegaki M, Matsuzaka M, et al. Effects of low incident levels of laser irradiation and other environmental factors on the production capability of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils. Laser Ther. 2005, 14(2): 55-65. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Dobrin N, Zamfirescu S, Anghel AH, Topoleanu I, Nicolaia I, Gianluca P, et al. Study on the effects of exposure to different doses of energy generated by a He-Ne laser on the quality of frozen-thawed semen of ram. Rom Biotechnol Lett. 2015 20(3): 10381-7. [Google Scholar]
- Fernandes GHC, de Carvalho Pde T, Serra AJ, Crespilho AM, Peron JP, Rossato C, et al. The effect of low-level laser irradiation on sperm motility, and integrity of the plasma membrane and acrosome in cryopreserved bovine sperm. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3): e0121487. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121487 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Iaffaldano N, Meluzzi A, Manchisi A, Passarella S. Improvement of stored turkey semen quality as a result of He–Ne laser irradiation. Anim Reprod Sci. 2005; 85(3-4): 317-25. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Ocaña-Quero JM, Gomez-Villamandos R, Moreno-Millan M, Santisteban-Valenzuela JM. Biological effects of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on acrosome reaction in bull sperm cells. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1997 40(3): 294-8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Yeste M, Codony F, Estrada E, Lleonart M, Balasch S, Peña A, et al. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:22569. doi: 10.1038/srep22569. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Ocaña Quero JM, Gomez Villamandos RJ, Moreno-Millan M, Santisteban Valenzuela JM. The effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on in vitro maturation and fertilization of immature bovine oocytes. Lasers Med Sci. 1995 10(2): 113-9. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Bielanski A, Hare WCD. Development in vitro of bovine embryos after exposure to continuous heliumneon laser light. Theriogenology. 1992; 37:192. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Hirao Y, Yanagimachi R. Detrimental effect of visible light on meiosis of mammalian eggs in vitro. J Exp Zool. 1978 206(3): 365-70. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Levi AC, Petrino R, Siccardi E. Laser irradiation on chicken embryos. Boll Sco Ital Biol Sper. 1987 3(4): 233-6. [Google Scholar]
- Moreno-Millan M, Ocaña-Quero JM. Preliminary results of the evaluation of the use of clinical laser He–Ne radiation in the process of bovine “in vitro fertilization”. Bulletin UASVM Vet Med. 2009; 66: 495. [Google Scholar]
- Ocaña-Quero JM, Gomez Villamandos R, Moreno Millan M, Santisteban Valenzuela JM. The effect of the Helium-Neon laser radiation on the in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes. Proceedings of the 11th European Coil. Cytogenet. Domest Anim. 1994: 174-8. [Google Scholar]
- Soares CA, Annes K, Dreyer TR, Magrini T, Sonoda MT, da Silva Martinho H, et al. Photobiological effect of low-level laser irradiation in bovine embryo production system. J Biomed Opt. 2014; 19(3): 035006-9. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.19.3.035006 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Mims MF, McKinnell RG. Laser irradiation of the chick embryo germinal crescent. J Embryol Exp Morph. 1971 26(1): 31-6. [Google Scholar]
- Whitaker M, Smith J. Introduction. Calcium signals and developmental patterning. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008; 363(1495): 1307-10. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2248. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Jaffe LF. Sources of calcium in egg activation: a review and hypothesis. Dev Biol. 1983 99(2): 265-76. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Jaffe LF. Calcium waves. Phil Trans R Soc B. 2008; 363: 1311-6. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2249 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Gizinger OA, Frantseva OV. Normalizing the effects of low-intensity laser radiation in relation to the functional and metabolic status of neutrophils in semen and kinetic features of sperm in patients with chlamydial infection. Ross J Immunol. 2016 2(1): 9-11. [Google Scholar]
- Gizinger OA, Letyayeva OI, Frantseva OV. Low-intensity laser therapy in correction of motor dysfunction of spermatozoa in patients with urogenital infections. Yuzh Ural Med Zhurn. 2014; 3: 35-41. [Google Scholar]
- Gizinger OA, Letyayeva OI, Frantseva OV, Zabirova MR. Application of low-intensity laser in reproductology. Vest Chel Obl Klin Boln. 2014; 4(27): 29-33. [Google Scholar]
- Gizinger OA, Frantseva OV, Zabirova MR. A method for increasing the functional-metabolic status of spermatozoa obtained from healthy human semen in vitro and in vivo. Vest Chel Obl Klin Boln. 2015; 1: 35-7. [Google Scholar]
- Goryunov SV. Principles of choosing laser radiation to affect sperm and studying the effects of this effect on human spermatozoa (experimental study). Proceedings of “Appl of Lasers in Biol and Med”. 1995: 120-1. [Google Scholar]
- Goryunov SV. Influence of low-energy laser radiation on human spermatozoa (experimental study) [Abstract of the thesis]. Moscow; 1996. [Google Scholar]
- Ban Frangez H, Frangez I, Verdenik I, Jansa V, Virant Klun I. Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia. Lasers Med Sci. 2015; 30(1): 235-40. doi: 10.1007/s10103-014-1653-x. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Firestone RS, Esfandiari N, Moskovtsev SI, Burstein E, Videna GT, Librach C, et al. The effects of low-level laser light exposure on sperm motion characteristics and DNA damage. J Androl. 2012; 33(3): 469-73. doi: 10.2164/jandrol.111.013458. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Karu TI. Lasers in infertility treatment: irradiation of oocytes and spermatozoa. Photomed Laser Surg. 2012; 30(5): 239-41. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Lenzi A, Claroni F, Gandini L, Lombardo F, Barbieri C, Lino A, et al. Laser radiation and motility patterns of human sperm. Arch Androl. 1989; 23(3): 229-34. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Saeed GhTh, Al-Kaisy AZ, Ali MKh. The effect of the low level laser irradiation on the human sperm motility. Al-Anbar J Vet Sci. 2014; 7(2): 6-10. [Google Scholar]
- Salama N, El-Sawy M. Light-emitting diode exposure enhances sperm motility in men with and without asthenospermia: preliminary results. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2015; 87(1): 14-9. doi: 10.4081/aiua.2015.1.14. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Singer R, Sagiv M, Barnet M, Levinsky H, Segenreich E, Fuchs Y, et al. Low energy narrow band non-coherent infrared illumination of human semen and isolated sperm. Andrologia. 1991; 23(2): 181-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Preece D, Chow KW, Gomez-Godinez V, Gustafson K, Esener S, Ravida N, et al. Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage. Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 46480. doi: 10.1038/srep46480 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Vesich TL. Some features of rehabilitating action of laser emission on native and cryopreserved human spermatozoa. Probl Cryobiol. 1994; 4(1): 33-5. [Google Scholar]
- Vesich TL, Kramar MI. Study of the action of laser irradiation on the nataive and cryopreserved human spermatozoa. Probl Cryobiol. 1994; 2: 53-4. [Google Scholar]
- Grishchenko VI, Yurchenko GG, Vesich TL. Increase in the functional activity of native and cryopreserved spermatozoa using helium-neon laser red radiation. Besplodiye. Vspomog Reprod Tekhnol Kiyev. 1995: 78-81. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV. Basics of laser therapy. Series “Effective laser therapy”. Moscow–Tver’: Triada; 2016, 1. [Google Scholar]
- Geniatulina MS, Korolev YuN, Nikulina LA. The ultrastructure of Leydig cells under the influence of drinking mineral water and electromagnetic radiation under the stress conditions in the rats. Voprosy Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2016; 5: 34-7. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Korolev YuN, Bobrovnitsky IP, Geniatulina MS, et al. The combined action of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under the immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study). Voprosy Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2015; 6: 37-41. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Korolev YuN, Mikhailik LV, Geniatulina MS, Nikulina LA. The use of drinkable sulfate mineral water in combination with laser and magnetolaser irradiation for primary prophylaxis of postradiation problems (experimental study). Voprosy Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2010; 4:3-6. [Google Scholar]
- Korolev YuN, Kurilo LF, Geniatulina MS, Nikulina L. A., Makarova N. P. The radioprotective effect of laser radiation on the spermatogenesis of rats and their progeny. Probl Reprod. 2007; 1: 34-7. [Google Scholar]
- Makarova NP, Korolev UN, Kurilo LF, Shileyko L.V., Ostroumova T. V., Nikulina L. A., et al. Effect of low intensity laser radiation on testicular tissue during common ionizing irradiation. Androlog Gen Surg. 2005; 1: 23-5. [Google Scholar]
- Bereznitskaya AN, Mendel’son GI, Makarova IV. The influence of long-term low-power laser radiation on the generative function of male mice. Gigiyen Aspekt Ispol Lazer Izluch Narod Khoz. Moscow; 1982: 143-4. [Google Scholar]
- Gabel P, Harrison K, Sherrin D, Carroll J. Sperm motility enhancement with low level laser and led photobiomodulation. A dose response study. Abstracts from 7th International Congress of the World Association for Laser Therapy; 2008. Photomed Laser Surg. 2009; 27(1): 160. [Google Scholar]
- Stolyarov AV, Lisichenko HL, Grabina VA. The effect of exposure and wavelength on the efficiency of reproduction in the processes of laser sperm treatment. Proceedings of the XVIII International Scientific-Practical Conference “The use of lasers in medicine and biology.” Yalta; 2002: 64-5. [Google Scholar]
- Hasan P, Rijadi SA, Purnomo S, Kainama H. The possible application of low reactive-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of male infertility: a preliminary report. Laser Ther. 1989; 1(1): 49-50. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
- Gladkova AI. Laser therapy in andrology. In: Popov VD. Current aspects of laser therapy. Cherkassy: Vertikal’, izdatel’ Kandych S.G.; 2011: 448-71. [Google Scholar]
- Bondarenko VA, Gladkova AI. The efficiency of low-intensity laser therapy in male infertility of different genesis. Zdorov Muzh. 2004; 3(10): 226-9. [Google Scholar]
- Bondarenko VA, Burma TE, Korobov AM. The dynamics of the incremental function of the testicles under the influence of LILI in the treatment of excretory-toxic infertility in men. Proceedings of the IX Intern Conf “The use of lasers in med and bio.” Yalta-Kharkov, 1998: 126-7. [Google Scholar]
- Vasil’yev VS, Vasil’yeva LI, Lisichenko NL. Interference microscopy of native and irradiated sperm of humans and animals. Proceedings of the XIX Intern Conf “The use of lasers in med and biol.” Odessa, 2003: 55-6. [Google Scholar]
- Vesich TD, Kramar MI. The study of the effect of laser radiation on native and post-cryopreserved human spermatozoa. Probl Kriobiol. 1994; 2: 54-5. [Google Scholar]
- Gladkova AI. Experimental substantiation of the effectiveness of laser therapy in andrological practice. Proceedings of the XXth Intern Conf “The use of lasers in med and biol.” Yalta, 2003: 90-2. [Google Scholar]
- Gladkova AI. Additive effect of drug and laser therapy for infertility. Proceedings of the XXVI Intern Conf “The use of lasers in med and biol.” Yalta, 2006: 114-5. [Google Scholar]
- Gladkova AI, Bondarenko VA. Experimental-clinical justification of fertility regulation with the help of low-intensity laser irradiation. Proceedings of the XXV Intern Conf “The use of lasers in med and biol.” Lutsk, 2006: 79. [Google Scholar]
- Gladkova AI, Tarasenko NE. The Influence of low-intensity laser irradiation on the incremental function of the testes. Proceedings of the XXI Intern Conf “The use of lasers in med and biol.” Odessa, 2004: 76-7. [Google Scholar]
- Alexandrov VP, Korenkov DG, Nikolaeva EV. Advantages of the use of Androgin device for treatment of secretory infertility and chronic prostatitis. Urologiya. 2006; 3: 71-4. [Google Scholar]
- Al’-Shukri SKH, Tkachuk VN, Sokolov AB, Slesarevskaya MN. Application of low-energy laser irradiation in urological diseases. Actual probl laser med. Saint Petersburg, 2001: 174-9. [Google Scholar]
- Slesarevskaya MN. The effectiveness of low-intensity laser radiation in patients with chronic prostatitis. [Abstract of the thesis]. Saint Petersburg, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Yantareva LI, Slesarevskaya MN, Sokolov AB, Kolcheva OV. Influence of low-intensity radiation of the green and infrared spectral range on the motility of spermatozoa in chronic prostatitis. Proceedings of Int. Conf. “Problems of laser medicine”. Moscow, 1997: 320-1. [Google Scholar]
- Yantareva LI, Slesarevskaya MN, Sokolov AB, Kolcheva OV. Influence of low-intensity irradiation of the green and infrared spectral range on the motility of spermatozoa in chronic prostatitis. Proceedings of the II Intern Sympos “Semicond solid-state lasers in med”. Saint Petersburg, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Mazo EB, Siluyanov KA. Application of low-intensity laser radiation in the complex treatment of men with secretory infertility. Farmateka, 2008; 9: 44-7. [Google Scholar]
- Mazo EB, Siluyanov KA. The use of local low-intensity laser therapy in the complex treatment of men with secretory infertility. Androl Gen Surg. 2009; 2: 101-2. [Google Scholar]
- Mazo EB, Tirsi KA, Mufaged ML, Siluyanov KA. The experience in application of low-intensity laser irradiation in the treatment of patients with secretory infertility in varicocele. Laser Med. 2002; 6(4): 50-1. [Google Scholar]
- Siluyanov KA. Low-intensity laser irradiation in complex treatment of patients with secretory infertility. [Abstract of the thesis]. Moscow, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Siluyanov KA. Application of low-intensity laser radiation in the complex treatment of men with secretory infertility. 2009. http://uroweb.ru/article/db-article-3670.html [Google Scholar]
- Asadov KhD. Male infertility and the possibilities of overcoming it with the help of in vitro fertilization in hot climate. [Abstract of the thesis]. Tashkent, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Vaisov IA, Shodiyev KhK, Baybekov IM. The effectiveness of low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) in the complex treatment of infertile men. Novost Dermatol Reprod Zdor. 2012; 1: 7-9. [Google Scholar]
- Kalinina SN. Inflammatory diseases of additional sex glands in men, caused by urogenital latent infection and complicated by infertility. [Abstract of the thesis]. Saint Petersburg, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Apolikhin OI, Moskvin SV. Laser therapy for male infertility. Part 2.systematic review of clinical trials. Urologiia. 2017; 6: 164-71. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.18565/urology.2017.6.164-171 [Google Scholar]
- Abunimekh BKh. Differential treatment of epididymitis and epididymorchitis. [Abstract of the thesis]. Makhachkala, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Reznikov LL. Treatment of patients with acute epididymoorchitis with low-intensity laser radiation. [Abstract of the thesis]. Leningrad, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- Safarov ShA. Modern approaches to the treatment of acute epididymitis. [Abstract of the thesis]. Moscow, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Shormanov IS, Vorchalov MM, Ryzhkov AI. Acute epididymitis: medical and social aspects. Modern possibilities of pathogenetic therapy. Eksper Clin Urol. 2012; 3: 71-8. [Google Scholar]
- Korenkov DG, Aleksandrov VP, Mikhajlichenko VV, Marusanov VE. Method for treating autoimmune sterility in men. Patent 2185211 RU, 20.07.2002. [Google Scholar]
- Yurshin VV. Complex treatment of chronic prostatitis using a lowenergy laser. [Abstract of the thesis]. Moscow, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Yurshin VV. Magnetic laser therapy in the treatment of male infertility. Moscow: Izdatel’skaya gruppa «BDTS–Press». 2003; 2(3): 171-3. [Google Scholar]
- Yurshin VV. Excretory-inflammatory form of male infertility (pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment). [Abstract of the thesis]. Moscow, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Yurshin VV, Sergienko NF, Illarionov VE. Ethiopathogenetic validation of using magnetolaser therapy in combined treatment of male infertility. Urologiya. 2003; 2: 23-5. [Google Scholar]
- Ikhayev AB. Combined use of magnetolaser and LD-laser therapy of infertility in patients with chronic prostatitis. [Abstract of the thesis]. Pyatigorsk, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV, Ivanchenko LP. Backgroundings for the technique of local laser negative pressure. Lazer Med. 2014; 18(3): 21-6. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV, Ivanchenko LP. Chronobiological approach to the treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction using a combination of local negative pressure and laser illumination. Urologiya. 2014; 3: 48-53. [Google Scholar]
- Putilin VA. Endovascular laser and balneotherapy combined with laser acupuncture in complex treatment of infertility in patients with chronic prostatitis. [Abstract of the thesis]. Pyatigorsk, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Tereshin AT, Putilin VA, Mashnin VV, Morozov FA. Lasero-therapy of fertile disturbances in patients with chronic prostatitis. J New Med Technol. 2007; 14(4): 208. [Google Scholar]
- Tereshin AT, Putilin VA, Mashnin VV, Morozov FA. Laserotherapy at disorders of fertility in the patients with chronic prostatitis. J New Med Technol. 2008; 15(4): 121. [Google Scholar]
- Agaev AA. The use of acu-and laser puncture in combination with balneo and peloid therapy in men with impaired fertility caused by nonspecific inflammatory diseases of the genital organs. [Thesis]. Pytigorsk,1998. [Google Scholar]
- Ikhayev AB, Teroshin AT. Laser therapy, acu-and laser puncture in correction of infertility in patients with chronic prostatitis. Proceedings of the VII Intern Congress PAAR. Sochi, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Tereshin AT, Istoshin NG, Putilin VA, Merslikin NV. Combined use of the laserotherapy, acu-and laseropuncture in correction of infertility in patients with chronic prostatitis. J New Med Technol. 2008; 15(4): 158-60. [Google Scholar]
- Tereshin AT, Istoshin NG, Putilin VA, Mashnin VV., Balneo-, laserotherapy, acu-and laseropuncture in correction in infertility in patients with chronic prostatitis. J New Med Technol. 2009; 16(1): 74-7. [Google Scholar]
- New medical technology FS № 2008/234 from 07.11.2008. Combined use of endovascular laser therapy, acu-and laser puncture in correction of infertility in patients with chronic prostatitis / Pyatigorsk State Scientific Research Institute of Balneology. Moscow, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Satybaldyev ShR, Satybaldyev ESh, Evdokimov VV. Rehabilitation reproductive function in patients in official infertile marriages. Androlog Gen Surg. 2013; 14(4): 69-72. [Google Scholar]
- Satibaldiev ShR, Satibaldiev ESh, Evdokimov VV. Treatment of the patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis and fertility disturbances. Exper Clin Urol. 2014; 4: 43-6. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV, Borisova ON, Belyaeva EA. Intravenous laser blood fluoring. Klin Med Farmak. 2017; 3(1): 21-5. [Google Scholar]
- Slonimskiy BYu. Features of the blood supply to the penis in the patients with obesity and reproductive dysfunction at the use of the developed complex program and its individual components. J New Med Technol. eEdition. 2013; 1: 155. [Google Scholar]
- Slonimskiy BYu. Modern programs for the restoration of reproductive function in obese men. [Abstract of the thesis]. Moscow, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Slonimskiy BYu, Kotenko KV, Schukin AI. Innovative technologies of vegetative correction in the treatment of patients with obesity and reproductive dysfunction. J New Med Technol. eEdition. 2013; 1: 156. [Google Scholar]
- Mufaged ML, Tirsi KA, Siluyanov KA, Novitskiy VYe. Application of low-intensity laser irradiation in the treatment of infertile patients with varicocele. Vest Ross Gos Univ. (special issue) 2004; 2(33): 17. [Google Scholar]
- Sheyko IP, Gorbunov YuA, Budevich AI, Yeliseykin DV. Method for improving the quality of sperm production in breeding boars. Patent 8413 BY, 30.09.2003. [Google Scholar]
- Chayka VK, Kvashenko VP, Ostapenko OI. Method for treating patients with pathology of spermatogenesis Patent 62075 UA, 15.12.2003. [Google Scholar]
- Gavrilov YuA, Kuz’michev LN, Leonov BV, Levchuk TN. Method for improving sperm quality in the cases of pathospermia applicable in artificial fertilization program. Patent 2205047 RU, 27.05.2003. [Google Scholar]
- Kalinina SN, Tiktinskiy OL, Aleksandrov VP, Sajdulloev L, Mishanin EA. Method for treating autoimmune male infertility cases. Patent 2294779 RU, 10.03.2007. [Google Scholar]
- Chekmarev VM, Kharchenko IV, Mashkov AE. Method of complex spermatogenesis stimulation. Patent 2406549 RU, 20.12.2010. [Google Scholar]
- Zagarskikh EYu, Kolesnikova LI, Dolgikh VV, Kolesnikov SI, Zagarskikh AYu, Kurashova NA, et al. Application of musk deer musk tincture and ultraviolet irradiation of blood for treatment of spermatogenic failure in men of reproductive age. Patent 2418581 RU, 20.05.2011. [Google Scholar]
- Shcherbatyuk TG, Novikova YaS, Chernov VV.Method of experimental stimulation of spermatogenesis. Patent 2481132 RU,10.05.2013. [Google Scholar]
- Gizinger OA, Dolgushin II, Frantseva OV, Kurenkov EL. Method of increasing functional-metabolic status of sperm cells obtained from semen of healthy individual in vitro under effect of lowintensity laser. Patent 2583949 RU, 10.05.2016. [Google Scholar]
- Avdoshin VP, Pershin KB, Krutov IV. Magnetic laser therapy for chronic prostatitis. Proceedings of the Plenum of the All-Russian Society of Urology. Perm’. 1994: 12-3. [Google Scholar]
- Moskvin SV, Kisselev SB. Laser therapy for joint and muscle pain. Moscow–Tver’: “Triada”. 2017. [Google Scholar]