Open Access

Table 2

Cervical cancer risk factors in Iran.

Row First author Year Place of study Type of study Number of participants Risk factor(s) Source
1 Vaisy A 2013 Tehran Case-control
  • 128 patients

  • 128 controls

  • Marital status (divorced or widowed)

  • Married more than once

  • Marriage at age below 16

  • Contraceptive pill consumption Protective factor: Cryotherapy

(36)

2 Nojomi M 2006 Tehran Crosssectional 300 patients
  • Positive family history of cervical cancer

  • Low marriage age

  • High prevalence of pregnancy

  • Low age at first pregnancy

  • Prolonged consumption of contraceptive pills

(37)

3 Boheirayi A 2006 Tehran Case-control
  • 109 patients

  • 218 controls

Protective factor: use of condom (42)

4 Mohaghegh F 2015 Arak Crosssectional 1000 women
  • Multiple marriages

  • Being widowed or divorced

  • Multiple sexual partners

  • ¬There was no significant relationship between smoking, diet, consumption of pregnancy pills with cervical cancer

(43)

5 Karimi Zarchi M 2010 Yazd Crosssectional 100 patients
  • Low-age marriage

  • Multi parity

  • Pow age at first pregnancy (16.2 years)

  • Smoking

  • Not doing Pap smear

(38)

6 Vaisy A 2014 Tehran Case-control
  • 128 cases

  • 128 controls

  • Marital status

  • Marriage more than once

  • Marriage before 16

  • Sexual intercourse more than twice a week

  • ¬Sexual intercourse during menstrual period did not significantly correlate with cervical cancer.

(41)

7 Dehaghani AS 2002 Shiraz Case-control
  • 23 patients with cervical epithelial cell carcinoma

  • 36 individuals for control

Existence of HLA-DQB1*0601 (44)

8 Taherian AA 2001 Esfahan Case-control
  • 87 patients

  • 195 controls

  • Age at first marriage (P=0.0008, OR=5)

  • Number of deliveries (P=0.0001, OR=3.2)

  • Contraceptive method (P=0.008, OR=3.3)

(39)

9 Vaisy A 2014 Orumieh Case-control
  • 128 patients

  • 128 controls

Use of contraceptive pills (this relationshipis significant with the duration of theconsumption). (40)

10 Jafari M 2007 Tabriz Crosssectional 6024 individuals
  • Number of deliveries of 3 cases and more

  • Number of pregnancies of 3 cases and more

  • Number of abortions of one case and more

  • Multiple sexual partners

  • Protective factor: use of condom

(45)