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Table 1

The results of laser prophylaxis of oral mucositis after chemotherapy on patients with various oncological diseases.

The basic disease and methods of treatment Age of patients, years Laser therapy methods Development of complications, %
Source
After LLLT Without LLLT
A randomized, prospective, controlled trial during 93 sessions of chemotherapy with highdose methotrexate for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoma involved 33 children: 17 - main group, 16 - comparison group The main, 1.7-17.9 (Av. age - 5.9) Comparison group 1.2-16.3 (Av. age - 8.4) λ = 670 nm, HP, M = 30 mW, S = 0.5cm2; E = 12-24 secs per one zone. For prevention, each of the 13 affected areas were consistently illuminated: the left and right cheek tissues along the line of teeth closing, the retromolar space, the lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue, and the palate, upper and lower lips. 59 88 Boris S.P. et al., 2016 [16]

A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 32 cycles of chemotherapy (21 for the treatment of osteosarcoma and 11 - acute high-risk lymphoid leukemia) 7-23 (Av. age - 14.6) λ = 685 nm, M = 35 mW, HP, E = 54 secs per zone, 72 J/cm2. Punctually, perpendicular: jugal mucosa left and right (two zones on each side), the superior and inferior internal lip mucosa (one zone in each quadrant), the floor of the mouth (one zone on each side), the lateral edge of the tongue (two zones on each side), the tip of the tongue (one zone), the smooth palate (one zone on each side) and the labial commissure. 27 73 Abramoff M.M.F. et al., 2008 [17]

Randomized, double-blind prospective placebo-controlled Phase III study Chemo-radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx) 94 patients: 47-group with LLLT, 47-group placebo. LLLT therapy, 53.5 (±6.9) Placebo Group, 55.7 (±8.6) For prophylaxis: λ = 660 nm, Power = 100 mW, Area = 0.24 cm2; E = 10 seconds per zone, 1J, 4 J/cm . In contact, nine zones per area: the mucosa of the lips, right and left buccal mucosa, the left and right lateral border of the tongue, buccal floor and ventral tongue. For treatment: in the placebo group, with symptoms of mucositis 3-4 grade): 660 nm, 100 mW, 1J, 8 J/cm2 40.4 78.7 Antunes H.S. et al., 2013 [18]

Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial chemotherapy (lung, GIT, skin, breast, lymphoma) 48 patients, 24 each in the LLLT and placebo groups Group LLLT, 1772 (Av. age -44.5 ± 4.04) Placebo group, 18-79 (Av. age -46.2 ± 4.4) λ = 630 nm, M = 30 mW, 5 J/cm2. 10 zones: two on the cheeks, two on the tongue, two on the floor of the mouth, one on the soft palate, one on the hard palate. 42 100 Arbabi-Kalati F. et al., 2013 [19]

Multicentre randomized phase III study of Radiotherapy (oropharyngeal, laryngopharynx and oral cavity carcinoma) 30 patients: 15 in the LLLT and placebo groups 36-78 (Av. age -60.4) λ = 633 nm, M = 60 mW and 25 mW (1 patient), 2 J/cm2, E = 33 and 80 seconds (1 patient) per zone. 9 zones in the oropharyngeal area: posterior third of the inner surfaces of the cheeks, soft palate and anterior tonsillar pilllars. 7.6 35.2 Bensadoun R.J. et al., 1999 [20]

Randomized Study Chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). 60 children (leukemia, lymphoma, solid tumours): 29 - group LLLT, 31 - control group 3-18 (Av. age -8.7 ± 4.3) λ = 780 nm, M = 60 mW, 4 J/cm2 On 5 areas: jugal mucosa, labial mucosa, edge of the tongue, soft palate, and sublingual region 22.5 (on day 8) (on day 15) (on day 8) (on day 15) Cruz L.B. et al., 2007 [21]

Chemotherapy (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) 40 children: groups of 10 people. preventive - A1 and A2, therapeutic B1 and B2 1-18 Prevention: A1: λ = 660 nm, M = 100 mW, S = 0.028 cm2, E = 10 secs per zone A2: λ = 830 nm, M = 100 mW, S = 0.028 cm2, E = 10 secs per zone Left and right jugal mucosa (two zones on each side), the superior and inferior internal lip mucosa (one zone in each quadrant), the floor of the mouth (one zone on each side), the lateral edge of the tongue (two zones on each side), the tip of the tongue (one zone), the soft palate (one on each side) and the labial commissure. Treatment: B1: λ = 660 nm, M = 100 mW, S = 0.028 cm2, E = 20 secs per point B2: λ = 830 nm, M = 100 mW, S = 0.028 cm2, E = 20 secs per point Directly, to the mucositis lesions 30 (A1) 50 (A2) - de Castro J.F.L. et al., 2013[22]

Double-blind, randomized placebo study Chemotheraoy (hemoblastosis) 55 patients: 27 - LLLT group, 28 - placebo LLLT group, Av. age -27.3 ± 9.7 Placebo group, Av. age -29.7 ± 11 λ = 630 nm, M = 30 mW, continuous S = 1 cm2, 5 J/cm2 10 zones in the posterior third of the inner surfaces of the cheeks, soft palate and anterior tonsillar pillars 31 41 Djavid G.E. et al., 2011 [23]

Triple-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III study Chemotherapy (head and neck cancer) Group LLLT-115, placebo-124 35-65 years old λ = 633 nm, 24 mW/cm2, S = 1 cm2, E = 125 secs per zone, 3 J per zone 6 sites (borders of the tongue, floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, labial mucosa, the soft palate and the oropharynx) 25 77 Gautam A.P. et al., 2013 [24]

Prevention. Prospective study Chemo (solid tumours) 26 patients Av. age -51 (32-73) λ = 650 nm, M = 100 mW and 780 nm, M = 50, 250 and 600 mW, S = cm2, E = 33 s per zone, 2 J/cm2 19 Genot- Klastersky M.T. et al., 2008 [25]


Treatment. A prospective, randomized trial Chemotherapy (hemoblastosis) 36 patients: group LLLT-18, placebo -18 LLLT group, Av. age - 56 (23-73), Placebo group Av. age - 44 (21-64) Inferior and superior lips, right and left cheeks, right and left tongue, palate and velum palate, right and left gums, and tongue frenulum 17 89

Randomized double-blind phase III study Chemoradiotherapy (squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the mouth, pharynx, larynx or metastasis in the neck with an unknown major cancer site) 75 patients: 37-group LLLT, 40- placebo LLLT group, ± 9.4 (Av. age - 55) Placebo group, ± 10.3 (Av. age - 55.5) λ = 660 nm, M = 10 mW, S = 4 mm2, E = 10 secs per zone, 2.5 J/cm2 9 areas, punctually: the inferior and superior lips, right and left cheeks, dorsal and ventral part of tongue, hard and soft palate, right and left gums and tongue frenulum 11-11-22 (on weeks 2-4-6) 13-32-24 (on weeks 2-4-6) Gouvêa de Lima A. et al., 2012 [26]

Randomized Study Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (hematologic or onco-hematological diseases, allogeneic HSCT) 22 patients: 12 - group LLLT, 10 - group 2 (mouthwash with a special solution: 0.15g of benzidamine, 1.13g of nistatin, 2g of neututocain and 10ml of distilled water) LLLT group, Av. age - 32.7 2nd Group, Av. age - 27.5 λ = 660 nm and 780 nm every other day, M = 25 mW, E = 10 s, 6.3 J/cm2. Contactly on mucosa 66.7 80 Khouri V.Y. et al., 2009 [27]

A placebo-controlled, randomized trial Chemotherapy or HSCT 21 children: group LLLT-9, placebo-12. Av. age - 8.2 (±3.1) LLLT group, 9.0 ± 3.3 Placebo group, 7.8 ± 3.0 λ = 830 nm, M = 100 mW, 4 J/cm2. The main zones: the floor of the mouth and the lateral/ventral part of the tongue 11.1 75 Kuhn A., 2009 [28]

Randomized controlled unilateral blind study HSCT 25 patients: group LLLT-11, control group -14 LLLT group, 36.8 ± 17.3 Control group, 36.6 ± 12.5 λ = 660 nm, M = 40 mW, S = 0.04 cm2, E = 4 secs per zone, 0.16 J, 4 J/cm2. 10 zones per area: mucosa of the lips, right and left buccal mucosa, lateral part of tongue to the right and left, ventral part of tongue and buccal floor 27.2 57.1 Silva G.B.L. et al., 2015 [29]

Av. age: average age; LLLT: low level laser therapy; λ: wavelength; CW: continuous wave; P: power; S: area; E: exposure (time)

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