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Table 1

Table of systematic review.

S/N Author Study Design Region Sample Size Demographics
ROM Improvement (Pre-op to post-op ROM) Extension Lag Cause of Contracture Complications Post Op Manipulation under Anaesthesia Follow-up Duration
Age (mean years) Male Gender (%)
1 Bari 2015 Retrospective review Bangladesh 32 26 100 75° (15° to 90°) None 12 – Ilizarov 6 – Wound infections n.a 24 months
20 – Internal fixation

2 Mahran 2014 Longitudinal Study Egypt 19 30 95 93.5° (22.6° to 116.1°) n.a. 7 – Ilizarov 0 n.a. 6 months
11 – External Fixator
2 – Internal Fixation

3 Oliveira 2011 Retrospective review Brazil 45 32 65 51° (34° to 85°) 15 × 1 6 – Ilizarov 5 – Surgical site in-fections 9 (14%) 24 months
27 – Internal Fixation
12 – Casting

4 Lee 2010 Longitudinal Study Korea 10 39.5 80 69° (25° to 94°) 5 × 1 10 – Femoral fractures 2 – Pin track infections n.a. 52 months
10 × 1

5 Masse 2008 Longitudinal Study Italy 21 29.6 71 72° (23° to 95°) n.a. 14 – Ilizarov 2 – Deep sepsis n.a. 101 months
3 – Internal Fixation 1 – Quadriceps tendon rupture
3 – External Fixator 1 – Skin necrosis
1 – Casting 1 – Lateral femoral condyle fracture

6 Rose 2005 Retrospective review Jamaica 4 44.8 25 90° (5° to 95°) None 2 – Ilizarov 0 complications None 8 months
1 – Severe Osteoarthritis
1 – Tibia plateau fracture

7 Ali 2003 Retrospective review England 10 35.6 n.a. 55° (33° to 88°) 10 × 1 10 – External Fixator for dis-tal femoral fractures 1 – Haematoma 7 (70%) 24 months
1 – Infection

8 Belleman s 1996 Retrospective review Belgium 16 30.4 44 68° (23° to 91°) 15° × 4 4 – Internal fixation of femoral fractures 1 – Deep infection n.a. 22 months
2 – External fixator of femoral fractures 1 – Compartment syndrome
1 – Internal fixation of patella 1 – Recurrence requiring arthrodesis
1 – Casting of femoral fracture
4 – Ilizarov limb lengthening
3 – Sequelae of IM injection
1 – Post knee replacement

9 Ebraheim 1993 Retrospective review U.S.A 12 43 73 53° (38° to 91°) 5° × 3 12 – Femoral Supracondylar fractures 1 – Requiring primary flap and immobilisation n.a. 25 months
10° × 1
15° × 1
30° × 1

10 Merchan 1992 Retrospective review Spain 21 31.8 86 57° (27° to 84°) 10° × 6 21 –Fractures 1 – Wound infection 3 (14%) 68 months
15° × 1 16 – Internal fixation 1 – Arterial embolism requiring ampu-tation
20° × 2 2 – Traction
40° × 1 2 – Casting
45° × 1 1 – Patellectomy

11 Warner 1988 Retrospective review U.S.A 2 29 100 110° (10° to 120°) None 1 – External fixator and casting None None 18 months

12 Daoud 1982 Retrospective review Canada 6 26.5 83 85° (30° to 115°) 5° × 1 3 – Femoral fractures trea-ted with casting None None 12 months
2 – Internal fixation of femoral/tibia fracture
1 – Osteomyelitis