Volume 9, Number 4, December 2019
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||21 November 2019|
Oral acute and sub-acute toxic effects of hydroalcoholic Terminalia chebula Retz and Achillea wilhelmsii extracts in BALB/c mice
Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran
* Corresponding author. Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. E-mail address: email@example.com (K. M. Naeini).
Accepted: 22 July 2019
Background: This study examined the acute and sub-acute toxic effects of Terminalia chebula and Achillea wilhelmsii extracts on the murine model.
Methods: In both phases, mice were assigned to intervention and control groups. At the end of study, the liver, kidney, and heart tissues were collected for histopathological studies.
Results: In the acute phase of the study, the safe dose was ≤5000 mg/kg for both extracts. In sub-acute phase, LD50 (95% CI) of Achillea wilhelmsii extract was determined ≥5000 mg/kg and that of Terminalia chebula extract 2754.436 (2438-3114) mg/kg. The highest dose of T. chebula extract induced few histopathological changes.
Conclusion: It will be useful to gain information on the minimum lethal doses of T. chebula and A. wilhelmsii to adopt safe doses of the two plants.
Key words: Achillea wilhelmsii / Acute toxicity / Animal Model / Sub-acute toxicity / Terminalia chebula
© Author(s) 2019. This article is published with open access by China Medical University
Open Access This article is distributed under terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided original author(s) and source are credited.
Nowadays, due to the increasing use of medicinal herbs to treat various diseases, the study of the therapeutic and negative effects of these drugs has attracted the attention of researchers. However, most pharmaceutical studies have mainly focused on the beneficial properties of the plants and their safe and toxic doses and side effects of them have not been sufficiently investigated. So to ensure the safety of herbal drugs, the study of the long-term and short-term toxic effects of these drugs is essential [1, 2]. Acute or lethal toxicity refers to a chemical compound’s ability to lead to death relatively soon after being orally ingested, or after being exposed, e.g., as a gas in the air, for four hours. The period has conventionally been expressed in minutes, hours, and weeks (up to two weeks), and has rarely been defined as longer than the mentioned periods. Sometimes the LD50 (median lethal dose) is referred to as the mean lethal dose. The LD50 of a certain compound is the dose of that compound that kills 50% of the members of a tested population (e.g. laboratory rats or mice) after specified test duration through the already described methods. The purpose of acute toxicity study is to obtain information on biological and chemical activity and mechanisms of action, which is the basis of toxicology and chemical classification. In most studies that have been conducted on toxicity rate of medicinal agents in laboratory animals, test agents are inoculated orally. Studies in this area are important with respect to drugs, foods, and accidental poisoning [3, 4]. LD50 values can be very small or vice versa, comparable to other toxicity scales. Toxicity measurement methods are numerous, most important of which are Gosselin scale and Hodge-Sterner scale . As no study has yet been conducted on the sub-acute and acute toxicity of Terminalia chebula Retz and Achillea wilhelmsii, the study was aimed to investigate these aspects of the extracts. T. chebula is from the Combretaceae family and is a herbaceous, perennial, and juicy plant natively occurring in India and Southeast Asia. Due to the presence of secondary metabolites, this plant has been considered a herbal drug. The fresh and dry fruit of this plant has a lot of phenolic compounds and strong antioxidant properties [6, 7]. The antibacterial, antifungal, antimutagenic, immunomodulatory activities, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, antimalarial, and anti-diabetic properties of T. chebula were demonstrated in different studies [8–18]. Yarrow (Achillea wilhelmsii), belonging to the Asteraceae family, has been applied in Iranian and other traditional medicine to treat some diseases. The species of the Achillea genus have a considerable amount of essential oil. A. wilhelmsii has secondary metabolites including terpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannin, and lignin [19, 20]. Based on studies, the anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer, and antioxidant effects of A. wilhelmsii have been proven. In addition, this plant can lower cholesterol and glucose levels [21–26].
The plants were purchased from medicinal plant stores and identified as the plants of interest by botanists, and two voucher specimens (no. 27 and 304) were deposited for T. chebula and A. wilhelmsii, respectively, at the Herbarium of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province. In order to prepare extracts, maceration was done in 70% ethanol during 72 hours and the mixture was refined using Buchner funnel and Whatman number 1 paper. The resulting extract was concentrated in vacuum in a Rotary evaporator at 35°C. The extract was then incubated at 40°C to dry and ultimately, the dried extract was left under -20°C temperature till it was used .
The total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. First, Gallic acid at different concentrations was prepared and the standard curve was plotted by reading their absorbance at 765 nm. Then, 100 μL of plant sample stocks was combined with 500 μL Folin-Ciocalteu and 1000 μL distilled water. The resulting mixture was well stirred and kept under room temperature for one minute. Afterwards, 1500 μL 20% sodium carbonate was introduced and the resulting mixture left at room temperature for 2 hours. The optical absorbance of the samples was recorded at 765 nm spectrophotometrically and the data were reported in mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight of the extracts .
The total flavonoid content was measured spectrophotometrically based on flavonoid-aluminium complexation, described by Lamaison and Carnat. Briefly, 1 mL extract solutions were combined with 1 mL 2% ethanolic AlCl3 and 3 mL 5% potassium acetate. The mixture was then left at room temperature for 15 minutes, and finally, the optical absorbance of the mixture was spectrophotometrically read at 430 nm, and the results were presented as mg rutin equivalent/g dry weight of the plant extracts .
The antioxidant activity was measured by the protocol of Kirby and Schmidt in 1996. The main point of this protocol is discolouration of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reduction of absorbance at 517 nm due to the influence of the antioxidant compound. The inhibition of absorbance at 517 nm was plotted to obtain antioxidant concentration. In this test, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as standard [14, 29].
In this study, the animals that used were male BALB/c mice (25-30 g, aged 7-8 weeks), which were kept at 12/12-h light/dark cycle under (22 ± 2)°C. The animals were transferred to the experiment environment one week before the tests. This study protocol was confirmed by Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee (ethics code: IR.SKUMS.REC1394.196)
To conduct this step of research, the method described by lorke et al was used . This step of the research was performed in two phases: First, the mice were assigned to 10 groups of 5 each randomly. For each of the extracts, one group was considered as controls and four groups as test groups. Then, in the control group, 0.5 mL of sterile normal saline was administered via oral gavage and the mice in different case groups were separately treated with 10, 156.25, 312.5, and 625 mg/kg of the extracts of A. wilhelmsii and T. chebula. The extract doses were selected according to the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of the Chemicals. At this stage, all administrations were performed as a single oral dose. Then, the the signs of toxicity were examined in mice (behaviour, respiratory pattern, cardiovascular symptoms, motor activity, reflex, and fur and skin changes) and mortality at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h intervals. Because there was no mortality at the intervals, the second stage of the experiment started. In this stage, the mice were assigned to 8 groups of 5 each (two control groups and three case groups for each extract). Then, in the control group, 0.5 ml of sterile normal saline was administered by the mentioned method and the mice of the three case groups were separately given 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg of each of extracts and the mice were examined for toxicity signs and mortality at the above-mentioned intervals .
Mice were randomly assigned to 14 groups of 5 each (one group considered to be control and 6 groups to be cases treated with each studied extract separately). Then, the mice in the control group orally received 0.5 ml of sterile normal saline for 14 days, and the mice in case groups were separately treated with 156.25, 312.5, 625, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg of extracts of A. wilhelmsii and T. chebula. The mice were monitored for toxicity signs and mortality on a daily basis for 30 days [31–33].
At the completion of the study, the mice were anaesthetized with chloroform and pieces of liver, kidney, and heart were removed so that they could be histopathologically examined. After the tissues were placed in 10% formalin solution and paraffin blocks were prepared, 5 μm sections were prepared from the tissues. To conduct histopathological investigations, hematoxylineosin staining was conducted on the sections and the lams were microscopically examined for possible lesions. To save time, the aforementioned measures were performed in control mice and mice receiving doses of 2500 and 5000 mg/kg of the extracts. If there were tissue changes in this stage, histopathological examinations were also performed in mice receiving lower doses of extracts .
Data analysis was conducted by the SPSS version 20 by Probit regression and P less than 0.05 was assumed significance level.
3.1. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of T. chebula and A. wilhelmsii
The phenolic content was measured according to the standard gallic acid curve plotted by the Y = 0.1098X-2.579 formula. Accordingly, the total phenolic contents of the T. chebula and A. wilhelmsii extracts were calculated at 276.66 ± 1.45 mg GAE/g, 55.07 ± 0.295 mg GAE/g dry extract, respectively. To calculate the total flavonoid content, a standard rutin curve (formula of Y= 0.235X-8.970) was used. On this basis, the total flavonoid content of T. chebula and A. wilhelmsii extract extracts was 39.99 ± 0.192 mg and 39.14 ± 0.100 mg rutin equivalent/g dry extract, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the extracts showed that the IC50 of T. chebula was 4.89 ± 0.101 μg/ml (Fig. 1). and that of A. wilhelmsii 154.5 ± 1.01 μg/ml (Fig. 2). The antioxidant capacity of BHT as the standard material was also calculated in this study test. The IC50 of BHT was calculated 33.5 ± 0.16 μg/ml. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity of T. chebula was 6.85 times more than BHT and this capacity for A. wilhelmsii was 0.21 time more than BHT.
Percentage of DPPH free radicals inhibition by Terminalia chebula.
Percentage of DPPH free radicals inhibition by Achillea wilhelmsi.
Acute toxicity of T. chebula and A. wilhelmsii extracts in mice with doses of 10, 156.25, 312.5 and 625 mg/kg no mortality was observed. Therefore, in the second stage, higher concentrations, i.e., 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg of the extracts were used. In the animals receiving the extract at these doses, no death was also observed. Therefore, in acute toxicity phase LD50 for both extracts was over 5000 mg/kg.
The mortality rate of the studied animals was investigated within 14 days, which was followed up until the 30th day. At this stage, the animals received 156.25, 312.5, 625, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg doses by gavage In sub-acute phase of the study, LD50 values calculated based on the dose-response curve using Probit regression analysis exhibited that the lowest T. chebula’s LD50 was ≥ 2754.436 mg/kg (CI = 95%, 2438.173-3114.643). Because only one mouse died at the 5000 mg/kg of A. wilhelmsii, its safe dose was calculated as ≤ 5000 mg/kg.
Microscopic examinations showed pathological hepatic, cardiac and renal changes in the mice receiving 5000 mg/kg hydroalcoholic T. chebula extract. In liver tissue sections, hepatic central venous dilatation with mild hyperemia and the accumulation of acute inflammatory cells (neutrophils) were observed as focal masses that were associated with the death of liver cells (Fig. 3-A). In the kidney, atrophy and wrinkling of glomeruli (Arrow) and degeneration of renal tubules were observed (Fig. 3-B). The heart tissue sections of the subjects showed cytoplasmic deformation and striated myocytes (Arrow) along with interstitial edema (Fig. 3-C). The animals received A. wilhelmsii extract, at 5000 mg/kg, certain changes in the liver, including regional necrosis around the central hepatic vein (Region 3-Arrow) and the hyperemia of the central hepatic vein (Asterisk), which is exclusively vulnerable to ischemic injury were observed. (Fig. 3-D) However, no clear histopathological changes were observed in kidney and heart tissue sections of mice that received the hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii .
Pathologic changes in the liver (A), Kidney(B) and Heart(C) tissues in Terminalia chebula treated-group and the liver tissue(D) of Achillea wilhelmsii treated group. (H & E × 100)
Given the growing application of medicinal plants to treat diseases and numerous pharmacological researches, the toxic properties of herbal drugs, along with their therapeutic properties need to be investigated; however, in some studies, the toxic effects of these plants have been studied. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the acute and sub-acute toxic effects of T. chebula and A. wilhelmsii extracts. In this study, the phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the studied extracts were measured. According to the results, a significant correlation was observed between the antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of the extracts of T. chebula, and A. wilhelmsii hydroalcoholic extract of T. chebula exhibited more potent antioxidant capacity, compared with A. wilhelmsii, due to its high total phenolic content (6.8 vs. 0.21 BHT). Basically, antioxidant properties increase with an increase in total phenolic content. Phenolic compounds, with high molecular weight, have a significant potential for scavenging free radicals, which depends on the number of aromatic nuclei and the nature of the hydroxyl groups influencing them. In this study, the extract of T. chebula was shown to be more antioxidant due to its comparatively more phenolic compounds. DPPH radicals are free, stable, organic, and nitrogenous radicals that are widely used for scavenging free radicals [36, 37]. The study of Ali Mirzaei et al. reported the anti-oxidant capacity and total phenolic content of A. wilhelmsii were low, and the study of Tupe et al. confirmed the high amount of total phenolic compounds and the high antioxidant capacity of T. chebula [38, 39]. In this study, the minimum lethal doses (LD50 values) of hydroalcoholic extracts of T. chebula and A. wilhelmsii in BALB/c mice were determined in the acute phase, no mortality occurred among the animal subjects. However, in the sub-acute toxicity phase, mortality was observed in mice receiving 2500 and 5000 mg/kg of T. chebula extract. In this regard, the minimum lethal dose of hydroalcoholic extracts of T. chebula was determined to be 2754.43 mg/kg. However, in the mice receiving the A. wilhelmsii extract, only one case of death was seen at 5000 mg/kg. Therefore, the minimum lethal dose of A. wilhelmsii extract was ≤ 5000 mg/kg. addition, the histopathological examination of various organs in this phase of the study showed that in mice receiving 5000 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic T. chebula extract, certain lesions developed in the liver tissue, which can be due to cell responses to the cytotoxicity due to the extract . Our study showed that administration of the highest dose of T. chebula extract caused pathological changes in kidney, liver, and heart tissues, which can be due to the existence of high level of phenolic content in the extract. Studies have shown that phenolic compounds at high concentrations can exhibit peroxidase-like behaviors and cause damage . However, there were no significant pathological changes in kidney and heart tissues of mice treated with hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii, and only regional necrosis around the central hepatic vein in the liver tissue was observed.
In acute toxicity phase, the administration of 5000 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic T. chebula and hydroalcoholic A. wilhelmsii extracts is safe. Regarding sub-acute toxicity, T. chebula extract at 2754.436 mg/kg and A. wilhelmsii extract at a dose of at most 5000 mg/kg is safe. Therefore, in future studies, safe doses can be selected by investigating the minimum lethal doses (LD50 values) of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. wilhelmsii and T. chebula.
The authors wish to disclose no conflicts of interest.
The authors acknowledge Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences Research and Technology Deputy for their support (grant no: 2263).
- Bello I, Bakkouri AS, Tabana YM, Al-Hindi B, Al-Mansoub MA, Roziahanim M, et al. Acute and sub-acute toxicity evaluation of the methanolic extract of alstonia scholaris stem bark. Med Sci. 2016;4(1):4. [Google Scholar]
- Dehghan M, Asgharian Sh, Khalesi E, Ahmadi A, Lorigooini Z. Comparative study of the effect of Thymus daenensis gel 5% and diclofenac in patients with knee osteoarthritis. BioMedicine. 2019;9(2):9. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Onwusonye JC, Uwakwe AA, Iwuanyanwu P, Iheagwam U. Oral acute toxicity (LD50) study of methanol extract of Annona senegalensis leaf in albino mice. Sky J Biochem Res. 2014;3(5):46–8. [Google Scholar]
- Randhawa MA. Calculation of LD50 values from the method of Miller and Tainter, 1944. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009;21(3):184–5. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Walum E. Acute oral toxicity. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106(2):497–503. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Bag A, Bhattacharyya SK, Chattopadhyay RR. The development of Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae) in clinical research. Asian Pac J. 2013;3(3):244–52. [Google Scholar]
- Rathinamoorthy R, Thilagavathi G. Terminalia chebula-review on pharmacological and biochemical studies. Int J PharmTech Res. 2014;6(1):97–116. [Google Scholar]
- Malekzadeh F, Ehsanifara H, Shahamat M, Levinb M, Colwell RR. Antibacterial activity of black myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz) against Helicobacter pylori. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001;18(1):858. [Google Scholar]
- Shinde SL, More SM, Junne SB, Wadje SS. The antifungal activity of five Terminalia species checked by paper disk method. Int J Pharma Res Dev. 2011;3:36–40. [Google Scholar]
- Sohni YR, Bhatt RM. Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and in immunomodulation studies. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;54(3):119–24. [Google Scholar]
- Sahar EL, Meshelhy R, Tomoco IK, Shigetoshi K, Hattori M, Tsuneo N. Inhibitory effects of egyptian folk medicines oh human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase. Chem. Pharm Bull. 1995;43(4):641–8. [Google Scholar]
- Hua-Yew Ch, Ta-Chen L, Kuo-Hua Y, Chien-Min Y, Chun-Ching L. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26(9):1331–5. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Arora S, Kaur K, Kaur S. Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 2003;23(1):295–300. [Google Scholar]
- Reddy DB, Reddy TCM, JyotsnaG Sharan S, Priya N, Lakshmipathi V, et al. Chebulagic acid, a COX–LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz, induces apoptosis in COLO-205 cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124(3):506–12. [Google Scholar]
- Ponnusankar S, Pandit S, Babu R, Bandyopadhyay A, Mukherjee PK. Cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential of Triphala A Rasayana from Ayurveda. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133(1):120–5. [Google Scholar]
- Pinmai K, Hiriote W, Soonthornchareonnon N, Jongsakul K, Sireeratawong S, Tor-Udom S. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of water extracts of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011;93(12):120. [Google Scholar]
- Rao NK, Nammi S. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6(1):17. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Saleem A, Husheem M, Harkonen P, Pihlaja K. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula retz fruit. Food chem. 2002;81(3):327–36. [Google Scholar]
- Motavalizadehkakhky A, Shafaghat A, Zamani HA, Akhlaghi H, Mohammadhosseini M, Mehrzad J, et al. Compositions and the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and extracts of two Achillea species from Iran. J Med Plants Res. 2013;7(19):1280–92. [Google Scholar]
- Alfatemi SMH, SharifiRad J, SharifiRad M, Mohsenzadeh S, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and in vitro antibacterial activity of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch essential oil on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus spp. 3. Biotech. 2015;5(1):39–44. [Google Scholar]
- Niazmand S, Esparham M, Rezaee SA, Harandizadeh F. Hypotensive effect of Achillea wilhelmsii aqueous-ethanolic extract in rabbit. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2011;1(1):51–6. [Google Scholar]
- Dhara A, Suba V, Sen T, Pal S, Chaudhuri AK. Preliminary studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the methanolic fraction of the root extract of Tragia involucrata Linn. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72(1):265–8. [Google Scholar]
- Amjad L, Mohammadi-Sichani M. Potential activity of the Achillea wilhelmsii leaves on bacteria. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinforma. 2011;1(3):216. [Google Scholar]
- Ahmadi-Jouibari T, Nikbakht MR, Mansouri K, Majnooni MB. Cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch. J Rep Pharma Sci. 2013;2(2):98–102. [Google Scholar]
- Hosseini M, Harandizadeh F, Niazamand S, Soukhtanloo M, Mahmoudabady M. Antioxidant effect of achillea wilhelmsii extract on pentylenetetrazole (seizure model)-induced oxidative brain damage in wistar rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;57(4):418–24. [Google Scholar]
- Khazneh E, Hribova P, Hosek J, Suchy P, Kollar P, Prazanova G, et al.. The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease. Molecules. 2016;21(4):404. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Rabbani M, Sajjadi S, Jalali A. Hydroalcohol extract and fractions of Stachys lavandulifolia vahl: effects on spontaneous motor activity and elevated plus-maze behaviour. Phytother Res. 2005;19(10):854–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Djeridane A, Yousfi M, NadjemiB Boutassouna D, Stocker P, Vidal N. Antioxidant activity of some Algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds. Food Chem. 2006;97(4):654–60. [Google Scholar]
- Karimi G, Tayebi N, Housainzadeh H, Shirzad F. Determination of antioxidant activity, phenolic contents and antiviral potential of methanol extract of Euphorbia spinidens Bornm (Euphorbiaceae). Trop J Pharm Res. 2016;15(4):759–64. [Google Scholar]
- Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch. Toxicol. 1983;54(4):275–87. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Hsu YW, Tsai ChF, Chen WK, Huang ChF, Yen ChCh. A subacute toxicity evaluation of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(10):2624–30. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Zahra T, Butt SA, Ali MH, Mubarak A, Shahid J. Role of beta carotenen on histomorphology of rat kidneys in subcute apap induced renal damage. PAF Med J. 2014;64(3):473–8. [Google Scholar]
- Schmidt L, Sheila A, Linda A, Jane R. Comparison of the curative antimalarial activities and toxicities of primaquine and its d and l isomers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1977;12(1):51–60. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Jothy SL, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Lau YL, Latha LY, Sasidharan S. Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of Cassia fistula in mice. Molecules. 2011;16(6):5268–82. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- karimi g, Tayebi N, Housainzadeh H, Shirzad F. The study of Sub-acute toxicity of aqueous extract Stalk and petals of Saffron (Crocus sativus L). Korean J Parasitol. 2004;3(12):29–35. [Google Scholar]
- Lagouri V, Boskou D. Nutrient antioxidants in oregano. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996;47(6):493–7. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Shimoji Y, Tamura Y, Nakamura Y, Nanda K, Nishidai Sh, Nishikawa Y, et al. Isolation and identification of DPPH radical scavenging compounds in Kurosu (Japanese unpolished rice vinegar). J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(22):6501–3. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Mirzaei A, Akbartabar M, Sadeghi H, Sharifi B. The Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica. Armaghane danesh. 2010;15(3):243–52. [Google Scholar]
- Tupe R, Kemse N, Khaire A. Evaluation of antioxidant potentials and total phenolic contents of selected Indian herbs powder extracts. Int Food Res J. 2013;20(3):1053–63. [Google Scholar]
- Rafieian-Kopaei M, Baradaran A. Oxidative stress and the paradoxical effects of antioxidants. J Res Med Sci. 2013;18(7):628. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]